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WATCH(1)                         User Commands                        WATCH(1)

       watch - execute a program periodically, showing output fullscreen

       watch [options] command

       watch  runs  command  repeatedly, displaying its output and errors (the
       first screenfull).  This allows you to watch the program output  change
       over  time.   By  default,  the  program  is  run  every 2 seconds.  By
       default, watch will run until interrupted.

       -d, --differences [permanent]
              Highlight the differences between  successive  updates.   Option
              will  read optional argument that changes highlight to be perma-
              nent, allowing to see what has changed at least once since first

       -n, --interval seconds
              Specify  update  interval.   The  command will not allow quicker
              than 0.1 second interval, in which the smaller values  are  con-

       -p, --precise
              Make watch attempt to run command every interval seconds. Try it
              with  ntptime  and  notice  how  the  fractional  seconds  stays
              (nearly) the same, as opposed to normal mode where they continu-
              ously increase.

       -t, --no-title
              Turn off the header showing the interval, command,  and  current
              time  at  the top of the display, as well as the following blank

       -b, --beep
              Beep if command has a non-zero exit.

       -e, --errexit
              Freeze updates on command error, and exit after a key press.

       -g, --chgexit
              Exit when the output of command changes.

       -c, --color
              Interpret ANSI color sequences.

       -x, --exec
              command is given to sh -c which means that you may need  to  use
              extra  quoting  to get the desired effect.  This with the --exec
              option, which passes the command to exec(2) instead.

       -h, --help
              Display help text and exit.

       -v, --version
              Display version information and exit.

       Note that POSIX option processing  is  used  (i.e.,  option  processing
       stops  at  the first non-option argument).  This means that flags after
       command don't get interpreted by watch itself.

       To watch for mail, you might do

              watch -n 60 from

       To watch the contents of a directory change, you could use

              watch -d ls -l

       If you're only interested in files owned by user joe, you might use

              watch -d 'ls -l | fgrep joe'

       To see the effects of quoting, try these out

              watch echo $$
              watch echo '$$'
              watch echo "'"'$$'"'"

       To see the effect of precision time keeping, try adding -p to

              watch -n 10 sleep 1

       You can watch for your administrator to install the latest kernel with

              watch uname -r

       (Note that -p isn't guaranteed to work across  reboots,  especially  in
       the face of ntpdate or other bootup time-changing mechanisms)

       Upon  terminal resize, the screen will not be correctly repainted until
       the next scheduled update.  All --differences highlighting is  lost  on
       that update as well.

       Non-printing characters are stripped from program output.  Use "cat -v"
       as part of the command pipeline if you want to see them.

       Combining Characters that are supposed to display on the  character  at
       the last column on the screen may display one column early, or they may
       not display at all.

       Combining Characters never count as different  in  --differences  mode.
       Only the base character counts.

       Blank  lines directly after a line which ends in the last column do not

       --precise mode doesn't yet have advanced temporal distortion technology
       to  compensate  for  a command that takes more than interval seconds to
       execute.  watch also can get into a state where it rapid-fires as  many
       executions  of command as it can to catch up from a previous executions
       running longer than interval (for example, netstat taking ages on a DNS

              0      Success.
              1      Various failures.
              2      Forking the process to watch failed.
              3      Replacing  child  process  stdout  with  write  side pipe
              4      Command execution failed.
              5      Closign child process write pipe failed.
              7      IPC pipe creation failed.
              8      Getting  child  process  return  value  with   waitpid(2)
                     failed, or command exited up on error.
              other  The  watch  will  propagate  command exit status as child
                     exit status.
       The original watch was written  by  Tony  Rems  <>  in
       1991,  with  mods  and corrections by Francois Pinard.  It was reworked
       and new features added by Mike Coleman <> in 1999. The beep,
       exec,  and  error  handling  features were added by Morty Abzug <morty@> in 2008.  On a not so dark and stormy morning in  March  of
       2003,  Anthony DeRobertis <> got sick of his watches
       that should update every minute eventually updating many seconds  after
       the  minute  started, and added microsecond precision.  Unicode support
       was added in 2009 by Jarrod Lowe <>

procps-ng                          June 2011                          WATCH(1)

Czas wygenerowania: 0.00057 sek.

Created with the man page lookup class by Andrew Collington.
Based on a C man page viewer by Vadim Pavlov
Unicode soft-hyphen fix (as used by RedHat) by Dan Edwards
Some optimisations by Eli Argon
Caching idea and code contribution by James Richardson

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