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SFDISK(8)                    System Administration                   SFDISK(8)

       sfdisk - partition table manipulator for Linux

       sfdisk [options] device
       sfdisk -s [partition]

       sfdisk  has  four  (main)  uses: list the size of a partition, list the
       partitions on a device, check the partitions on a device,  and  -  very
       dangerous - repartition a device.

       sfdisk  doesn't understand the GUID Partition Table (GPT) format and it
       is not designed for large partitions.  In  these  cases  use  the  more
       advanced GNU parted(8).

       Note  that sfdisk does not align partitions to block-device I/O limits.
       This functionality is provided by fdisk(8).

   List sizes
       sfdisk -s partition gives the size of partition in blocks.  This may be
       useful  in  connection with programs like mkswap(8).  Here partition is
       usually something like /dev/hda1 or /dev/sdb12,  but  may  also  be  an
       entire disk, like /dev/xda.

              % sfdisk -s /dev/hda9

       If the partition argument is omitted, sfdisk will list the sizes of all
       block devices, and the total:

              % sfdisk -s
              /dev/hda: 208896
              /dev/hdb: 1025136
              /dev/hdc: 1031063
              /dev/sda: 8877895
              /dev/sdb: 1758927
              total: 12901917 blocks

   List partitions
       The second type of invocation: sfdisk -l device will  list  the  parti-
       tions  on the specified device.  If the device argument is omitted, the
       partitions on all block devices are listed.

              % sfdisk -l /dev/hdc

              Disk /dev/hdc: 16 heads, 63 sectors, 2045 cylinders
              Units = cylinders of 516096 bytes, blocks of 1024 bytes, counting from 0

                 Device Boot Start     End   #cyls   #blocks   Id  System
              /dev/hdc1          0+    406     407-   205096+  83  Linux native
              /dev/hdc2        407     813     407    205128   83  Linux native
              /dev/hdc3        814    2044    1231    620424   83  Linux native
              /dev/hdc4          0       -       0         0    0  Empty

       The trailing - and + signs indicate that rounding has taken place,  and
       that  the actual value is slightly less or more.  To see the exact val-
       ues, ask for a listing with sectors as unit (-u S).

   Check partitions
       The third type of invocation: sfdisk -V device will apply various  con-
       sistency  checks  to the partition tables on device.  It prints `OK' or
       complains.  The -V option can be used together with  -l.   In  a  shell
       script one might use sfdisk -V -q device which only returns a status.

   Create partitions
       The  fourth type of invocation: sfdisk device will cause sfdisk to read
       the specification for the desired partitioning of device from  standard
       input,  and  then  to change the partition tables on that block device.
       Thus it is possible to use sfdisk from a  shell  script.   When  sfdisk
       determines  that its standard input is a terminal, it will be conversa-
       tional; otherwise it will abort on any error.


       As a precaution, one can save the sectors changed by sfdisk:

              % sfdisk /dev/hdd -O

       Then, if you discover that you did  something  stupid  before  anything
       else  has  been  written  to  the  block  device, it may be possible to
       recover the old situation with:

              % sfdisk /dev/hdd -I

       (This is not the same as saving the old  partition  table:  a  readable
       version  of  the  old partition table can be saved using the -d option.
       However, if you create logical partitions, the sectors describing  them
       are  located  somewhere  on block device, possibly on sectors that were
       not part of the partition table before.  Thus, the information  the  -O
       option saves is not a binary version of the output of -d.)

       There are many options.

       -v, --version
              Display version information and exit.

       -h, --help
              Display help text and exit.

       -T, --list-types
              Print the recognized types (system Id's).

       -s, --show-size
              List the size of a partition.

       -g, --show-geometry
              List  the  kernel's  idea of the geometry of the indicated block

       -G, --show-pt-geometry
              List the geometry of the  indicated  block  devices  guessed  by
              looking at the partition table.

       -l, --list
              List the partitions of a device.

       -d, --dump
              Dump  the  partitions  of a device in a format that is usable as
              input to sfdisk.  For example,
                  % sfdisk -d /dev/hda > hda.out
                  % sfdisk /dev/hda < hda.out
              will correct the bad last extended partition that the OS/2 fdisk

       -V, --verify
              Test whether partitions seem correct.  (See the third invocation
              type above.)

       -i, --increment
              Number cylinders etc. starting from 1 instead of 0.

       -N number
              Change only the single partition indicated.  For example:
                  % sfdisk /dev/hdb -N5
              will make the fifth partition on  /dev/hdb  bootable  (`active')
              and  change  nothing  else.   (Probably  this fifth partition is
              called /dev/hdb5, but you are free to call  it  something  else,
              like `/my_equipment/disks/2/5' or so).

       -A, --activate[=device_or_number]
              Switch on the bootable flag.

              This option takes an optional argument.  When no option argument
              is given, the command will list the  partitions  that  have  the
              bootable  flag set for the device specified as command argument.
              For example:

                  % sfdisk --activate /dev/sda

              When a device name is given as option argument,  the  partitions
              specified  as  command  argument  will  have  the  bootable flag
              switched on.  Other partitions for the same device will have the
              bootable  flag cleared.  For example, with the following command
              the partitions 1 and 4 are set to be bootable, while 2 and 3 are

                  % sfdisk --activate=/dev/sda 1 4

              If  only a single partition needs to be activated, then the par-
              tition number must be given as option argument, and  the  device
              as command argument.  For example:

                  % sfdisk --activate=1 /dev/sda

              The  activate  option is turned by default on when the program's
              invocation name is activate.

       -c, --id number [Id]
              If no Id argument given: print the partition Id of the indicated
              partition.   If  an Id argument is present: change the type (Id)
              of the indicated partition to the given value.  This option  has
              two longer forms, --print-id and --change-id.  For example:
                  % sfdisk --print-id /dev/hdb 5
                  % sfdisk --change-id /dev/hdb 5 83
              first  reports  that  /dev/hdb5  has Id 6, and then changes that
              into 83.

       -u, --unit letter
              Interpret the input and show the output in the  units  specified
              by letter.  This letter can be one of S, C, B or M, meaning Sec-
              tors,  Cylinders,  Blocks  and  Megabytes,  respectively.    The
              default is cylinders, at least when the geometry is known.

       -x, --show-extended
              Also  list non-primary extended partitions on output, and expect
              descriptors for them on input.

       -C, --cylinders cylinders
              Specify the number of cylinders, possibly  overriding  what  the
              kernel thinks.

       -H, --heads heads
              Specify the number of heads, possibly overriding what the kernel

       -S, --sectors sectors
              Specify the number of sectors, possibly overriding what the ker-
              nel thinks.

       -f, --force
              Do what I say, even if it is stupid.

       -q, --quiet
              Suppress warning messages.

       -L, --Linux
              Do not complain about things irrelevant for Linux.

       -D, --DOS
              For  DOS-compatibility:  waste a little space.  (More precisely:
              if a partition cannot contain sector 0, e.g. because that is the
              MBR  of  the  device,  or  contains  the  partition  table of an
              extended partition, then sfdisk would make  it  start  the  next
              sector.   However,  when  this  option  is given it skips to the
              start of the next track, wasting for example 33 sectors (in case
              of  34  sectors/track),  just  like certain versions of DOS do.)
              Certain Disk Managers and boot loaders (such as  OSBS,  but  not
              LILO or the OS/2 Boot Manager) also live in this empty space, so
              maybe you want this option if you use one.

       -E, --DOS-extended
              Take the starting sector numbers of "inner" extended  partitions
              to  be  relative  to the starting cylinder boundary of the outer
              one (like some versions of DOS do), rather than relative to  the
              actual  starting sector (like Linux does).  (The fact that there
              is a difference here means that one should always  let  extended
              partitions  start at cylinder boundaries if DOS and Linux should
              interpret the partition table in the same way.   Of  course  one
              can  only know where cylinder boundaries are when one knows what
              geometry DOS will use for this block device.)

       -U, --unhide device
              Make various Microsoft partition types unhidden.  For full  list
              see types output.

                  % sfdisk --list-types | grep Hidden

              Notice that the Hidden NTFS WinRE (Windows Recovery Environment)
              does not have non-hidden equivalent.

       --IBM, --leave-last
              Certain IBM diagnostic programs assume that  they  can  use  the
              last  cylinder  on  a  device for disk-testing purposes.  If you
              think you might ever run such programs, use this option to  tell
              sfdisk that it should not allocate the last cylinder.  Sometimes
              the last cylinder contains a bad sector table.

       -n     Go through all the motions, but do not actually write  to  block

       -R, --re-read
              Only execute the BLKRRPART ioctl (to make the kernel re-read the
              partition table).  This can be useful for  checking  in  advance
              that  the  final BLKRRPART will be successful, and also when you
              changed the partition table `by hand' (e.g.,  using  dd  from  a
              backup).  If the kernel complains (`device busy for revalidation
              (usage = 2)') then something still  uses  the  device,  and  you
              still  have  to unmount some file system, or say swapoff to some
              swap partition.

              When starting a repartitioning of a block device, sfdisk  checks
              that this device is not mounted, or in use as a swap device, and
              refuses to continue if it is.  This option suppresses the  test.
              (On the other hand, the -f option would force sfdisk to continue
              even when this test fails.)

              Partitions are in order.  See also warning section.

              Partitions are not in order.  See also warning section.

              All logical partitions are inside outermost extended.  See  also
              warning section and chaining.

              Some,  or  none, of the logical partitions are not inside outer-
              most extended.  See also warning section and chaining.

              Caution, see warning section.  Every partition is  contained  in
              the surrounding partitions and is disjoint from all others.

              Caution, see warning section.  Every data partition is contained
              in the surrounding partitions and disjoint from all others,  but
              extended  partitions  may  lie  outside  (insofar  as allowed by

              Caution, see warning section.  All data partitions are  mutually
              disjoint;  extended  partitions each use one sector only (except
              perhaps for the outermost one).

       -O file
              Just before writing the new partition, output the  sectors  that
              are  going  to  be  overwritten  to  file  (where hopefully file
              resides on another block device, or on a floppy).

       -I file
              After destroying your filesystems  with  an  unfortunate  sfdisk
              command,  you  would have been able to restore the old situation
              if only you had preserved it using the -O flag.

       -1, --one-only
              Reserved option that does nothing currently.

       Block 0 of a block device (the Master Boot Record) contains among other
       things  four  partition descriptors.  The partitions described here are
       called primary partitions.

       A partition descriptor has 6 fields:
              struct partition {
                  unsigned char bootable;        /* 0 or 0x80 */
                  hsc begin_hsc;
                  unsigned char id;
                  hsc end_hsc;
                  unsigned int starting_sector;
                  unsigned int nr_of_sectors;

       The two hsc fields indicate head, sector and cylinder of the begin  and
       the  end  of  the  partition.  Since each hsc field only takes 3 bytes,
       only 24 bits are available,  which  does  not  suffice  for  big  block
       devices  (say  >  8 GB).   In  fact, due to the wasteful representation
       (that uses a byte for the number of  heads,  which  is  typically  16),
       problems  already  start with 0.5 GB.  However Linux does not use these
       fields, and problems can arise only at boot time, before Linux has been
       started.  For more details, see the lilo documentation.

       Each  partition  has  a  type,  its  `Id',  and  if this type is 5 or f
       (`extended partition') the starting sector of the partition again  con-
       tains 4 partition descriptors.  MSDOS only uses the first two of these:
       the first one an actual data partition, and the  second  one  again  an
       extended  partition  (or  empty).   In  this  way  one  gets a chain of
       extended partitions.  Other operating systems have  slightly  different
       conventions.   Linux  also  accepts  type 85 as equivalent to 5 and f -
       this can be useful if one wants to have extended partitions under Linux
       past  the 1024 cylinder boundary, without DOS FDISK hanging.  (If there
       is no good reason, you should just use 5, which is understood by  other

       Partitions that are not primary or extended are called logical.  Often,
       one cannot boot from logical partitions (because the process of finding
       them  is  more involved than just looking at the MBR).  Note that of an
       extended partition only the Id and the start are used.  There are vari-
       ous  conventions  about  what to write in the other fields.  One should
       not try to use extended partitions for data storage or swap.

       sfdisk reads lines of the form
              <start> <size> <id> <bootable> <c,h,s> <c,h,s>
       where each line fills one partition descriptor.

       Fields are separated by whitespace, or comma or semicolon possibly fol-
       lowed  by whitespace; initial and trailing whitespace is ignored.  Num-
       bers can be octal, decimal or hexadecimal, decimal is default.  When  a
       field is absent or empty, a default value is used.

       The  <c,h,s>  parts  can (and probably should) be omitted - sfdisk com-
       putes them from <start> and <size> and the  block  device  geometry  as
       given by the kernel or specified using the -H, -S, -C flags.

       Bootable  is  specified  as  [*|-], with as default not-bootable.  (The
       value of this field is irrelevant for Linux - when Linux  runs  it  has
       been  booted  already  - but might play a role for certain boot loaders
       and for other operating systems.  For example, when there  are  several
       primary DOS partitions, DOS assigns C: to the first among these that is

       Id is given in hex, without the 0x prefix, or is [E | S | L | X], where
       L  (LINUX_NATIVE  (83))  is  the  default,  S  is LINUX_SWAP (82), E is

       The default value of start is the first nonassigned sector/cylinder/...

       The default value of size is as much as possible (until next  partition
       or end-of-device).

       However,  for  the  four  partitions  inside an extended partition, the
       defaults are: Linux partition, Extended partition, Empty, Empty.

       But when the -N option (change a single partition only) is  given,  the
       default for each field is its previous value.

       A  '+'  can  be  specified instead of a number for size, which means as
       much as possible.  This is useful with the -N option.

       The command
              sfdisk /dev/hdc << EOF
       will partition /dev/hdc just as indicated above.

       The command
              sfdisk /dev/hdb << EOF
       will partition /dev/hdb into two Linux partitions of 3  and  60  cylin-
       ders,  a swap space of 19 cylinders, and an extended partition covering
       the rest.  Inside the extended partition there are four  Linux  logical
       partitions, three of 130 cylinders and one covering the rest.

       With  the -x option, the number of input lines must be a multiple of 4:
       you have to list the two empty partitions that you never want using two
       blank  lines.   Without the -x option, you give one line for the parti-
       tions inside a extended partition, instead of four, and terminate  with
       end-of-file  (^D).  (And sfdisk will assume that your input line repre-
       sents the first of four, that the second one is extended, and  the  3rd
       and 4th are empty.)

       The  options marked with caution in the manual page are dangerous.  For
       example not all functionality is completely implemented, which can be a
       reason for unexpected results.

       The DOS 6.x FORMAT command looks for some information in the first sec-
       tor of the data area of the partition, and treats this  information  as
       more  reliable than the information in the partition table.  DOS FORMAT
       expects DOS FDISK to clear the first 512 bytes of the data  area  of  a
       partition  whenever a size change occurs.  DOS FORMAT will look at this
       extra information even if the /U flag is given - we consider this a bug
       in DOS FORMAT and DOS FDISK.

       The  bottom  line is that if you use sfdisk to change the size of a DOS
       partition table entry, then you must also use dd to zero the first  512
       bytes  of  that  partition before using DOS FORMAT to format the parti-
       tion.  For example, if you were using sfdisk to make  a  DOS  partition
       table  entry  for  /dev/hda1,  then (after exiting sfdisk and rebooting
       Linux so that the partition table information is valid) you  would  use
       the  command  "dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hda1 bs=512 count=1" to zero the
       first 512 bytes of the partition.  BE EXTREMELY CAREFUL if you use  the
       dd  command,  since a small typo can make all of the data on your block
       device useless.

       For best results, you should always use an OS-specific partition  table
       program.   For  example,  you  should  make DOS partitions with the DOS
       FDISK program and Linux partitions with the Linux sfdisk program.

       Stephen Tweedie reported (930515): `Most reports of superblock  corrup-
       tion  turn out to be due to bad partitioning, with one filesystem over-
       running the start of the next and corrupting its  superblock.   I  have
       even  had  this  problem  with the supposedly-reliable DRDOS.  This was
       quite possibly due to DRDOS-6.0's FDISK command.  Unless  I  created  a
       blank track or cylinder between the DRDOS partition and the immediately
       following one, DRDOS would happily stamp all over the start of the next
       partition.   Mind  you,  as  long  as I keep a little free device space
       after any DRDOS partition, I don't have any other problems with the two
       coexisting on the one drive.'

       A.  V.  Le Blanc writes in README.efdisk: `Dr. DOS 5.0 and 6.0 has been
       reported to have problems cooperating with Linux, and with this version
       of efdisk in particular.  This efdisk sets the system type to hexadeci-
       mal 81.  Dr. DOS seems to confuse this with hexadecimal 1, a DOS  code.
       If  you  use  Dr.  DOS, use the efdisk command 't' to change the system
       code of any Linux partitions to some number less than hexadecimal 80; I
       suggest 41 and 42 for the moment.'

       A.  V.  Le  Blanc  writes  in his README.fdisk: `DR-DOS 5.0 and 6.0 are
       reported to have difficulties with partition ID codes of  80  or  more.
       The  Linux  `fdisk'  used  to  set the system type of new partitions to
       hexadecimal 81.  DR-DOS seems to confuse this with hexadecimal 1, a DOS
       code.   The values 82 for swap and 83 for file systems should not cause
       problems with DR-DOS.  If they do, you may use the `fdisk' command  `t'
       to  change  the system code of any Linux partitions to some number less
       than hexadecimal 80; I suggest 42 and 43 for the moment.'

       In fact, it seems that only 4 bits are significant for the DRDOS FDISK,
       so  that  for  example 11 and 21 are listed as DOS 2.0.  However, DRDOS
       itself seems to use the full byte.  I have not been able  to  reproduce
       any corruption with DRDOS or its fdisk.

       There are too many options.

       There is no support for non-DOS partition types.

       cfdisk(8), fdisk(8), mkfs(8), parted(8), partprobe(8), kpartx(8)

       The  sfdisk  command is part of the util-linux package and is available

util-linux                        August 2011                        SFDISK(8)

Czas wygenerowania: 0.00055 sek.

Created with the man page lookup class by Andrew Collington.
Based on a C man page viewer by Vadim Pavlov
Unicode soft-hyphen fix (as used by RedHat) by Dan Edwards
Some optimisations by Eli Argon
Caching idea and code contribution by James Richardson

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