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Test::Deep(3pm)       User Contributed Perl Documentation      Test::Deep(3pm)

       Test::Deep - Extremely flexible deep comparison

         use Test::More tests => $Num_Tests;
         use Test::Deep;

           "got the right horrible nested data structure"

           methods(name => "John", phone => "55378008"),
           "object methods ok"

           [$hash1, $hash2, ignore()],
           "first 2 elements are as expected, ignoring 3"

           noclass({value => 5}),
           "object looks ok, not checking it's class"

           bag('a', 'b', {key => [1, 2]}),
           "array has the 3 things we wanted in some order"

       If you don't know anything about automated testing in Perl then you
       should probably read about Test::Simple and Test::More before
       preceding.  Test::Deep uses the Test::Builder framework.

       Test::Deep gives you very flexible ways to check that the result you
       got is the result you were expecting. At it's simplest it compares two
       structures by going through each level, ensuring that the values match,
       that arrays and hashes have the same elements and that references are
       blessed into the correct class. It also handles circular data
       structures without getting caught in an infinite loop.

       Where it becomes more interesting is in allowing you to do something
       besides simple exact comparisons. With strings, the "eq" operator
       checks that 2 strings are exactly equal but sometimes that's not what
       you want. When you don't know exactly what the string should be but you
       do know some things about how it should look, "eq" is no good and you
       must use pattern matching instead. Test::Deep provides pattern matching
       for complex data structures

       Test::Deep has a lot of exports.  See "EXPORTS" below.

       How Test::Deep works is much easier to understand by seeing some

   Without Test::Deep
       Say you want to test a function which returns a string. You know that
       your string should be a 7 digit number beginning with 0, "eq" is no
       good in this situation, you need a regular expression. So you could use
       Test::More's "like()" function:

         like($string, qr/^0[0-9]{6}$/, "number looks good");

       Similarly, to check that a string looks like a name, you could do:

         like($string, qr/^(Mr|Mrs|Miss) \w+ \w+$/,
           "got title, first and last name");

       Now imagine your function produces a hash with some personal details in
       it.  You want to make sure that there are 2 keys, Name and Phone and
       that the name looks like a name and the phone number looks like a phone
       number. You could do:

         $hash = make_person();
         like($hash->{Name}, qr/^(Mr|Mrs|Miss) \w+ \w+$/, "name ok");
         like($hash->{Phone}, qr/^0[0-9]{6}$/, "phone ok");
         is(scalar keys %$hash, 2, "correct number of keys");

       But that's not quite right, what if make_person has a serious problem
       and didn't even return a hash? We really need to write

         if (ref($hash) eq "HASH")
           like($hash->{Name}, qr/^(Mr|Mrs|Miss) \w+ \w+$/, "name ok");
           like($hash->{Phone}, qr/^0[0-9]{6}$/, "phone ok");
           is(scalar keys %$hash, 2, "correct number of keys");
           fail("person not a hash");
           fail("person not a hash");
           fail("person not a hash"); # need 3 to keep the plan correct

       Already this is getting messy, now imagine another entry in the hash,
       an array of children's names. This would require

         if (ref($hash) eq "HASH")
           like($hash->{Name}, $name_pat, "name ok");
           like($hash->{Phone}, '/^0d{6}$/', "phone ok");
           my $cn = $hash->{ChildNames};
           if (ref($cn) eq "ARRAY")
             foreach my $child (@$cn)
               like($child, $name_pat);
               fail("child names not an array")
           fail("person not a hash");

       This is a horrible mess and because we don't know in advance how many
       children's names there will be, we can't make a plan for our test
       anymore (actually, we could but it would make things even more

       Test::Deep to the rescue.

   With Test::Deep
         my $name_re = re('^(Mr|Mrs|Miss) \w+ \w+$');
             Name => $name_re,
             Phone => re('^0d{6}$'),
             ChildNames => array_each($name_re)
           "person ok"

       This will do everything that the messy code above does and it will give
       a sensible message telling you exactly what went wrong if it finds a
       part of $person that doesn't match the pattern. "re()" and
       "array_each()" are special function imported from Test::Deep. They
       create a marker that tells Test::Deep that something different is
       happening here. Instead of just doing a simple comparison and checking
       are two things exactly equal, it should do something else.

       If a person was asked to check that 2 structures are equal, they could
       print them both out and compare them line by line. The markers above
       are similar to writing a note in red pen on one of the printouts
       telling the person that for this piece of the structure, they should
       stop doing simple line by line comparison and do something else.

       "re($regex)" means that Test::Deep should check that the current piece
       of data matches the regex in $regex. "array_each($struct)" means that
       Test::Deep should expect the current piece of data to be an array and
       it should check that every element of that array matches $struct.  In
       this case, every element of "$person->{ChildNames}" should look like a
       name. If say the 3rd one didn't you would get an error message
       something like

         Using Regexp on $data->{ChildNames}[3]
            got    : 'Queen John Paul Sartre'
            expect : /^(Mr|Mrs|Miss) \w+ \w+$/

       There are lots of other special comparisons available, see "SPECIAL
       COMPARISONS PROVIDED" below for the full list.

   Reusing structures
       Test::Deep is good for reusing test structures so you can do this

         my $name_re = re('^(Mr|Mrs|Miss) \w+ \w+$');
         my $person_cmp = {
           Name => $name_re,
           Phone => re('^0d{6}$'),
           ChildNames => array_each($name_re)

         cmp_deeply($person1, $person_cmp, "person ok");
         cmp_deeply($person2, $person_cmp, "person ok");
         cmp_deeply($person3, $person_cmp, "person ok");

       You can even put $person_cmp in a module and let other people use it
       when they are writing test scripts for modules that use your modules.

       To make things a little more difficult, lets change the person data
       structure so that instead of a list of ChildNames, it contains a list
       of hashes, one for each child. So in fact our person structure will
       contain other person structures which may contain other person
       structures and so on.  This is easy to handle with Test::Deep because
       Test::Deep structures can include themselves. Simply do

         my $name_re = re('^(Mr|Mrs|Miss) \w+ \w+$');
         my $person_cmp = {
           Name => $name_re,
           Phone => re('^0d{6}$'),
           # note no mention of Children here

         $person_cmp->{Children} = array_each($person_cmp);

         cmp_deeply($person, $person_cmp, "person ok");

       This will now check that $person->{Children} is an array and that every
       element of that array also matches $person_cmp, this includes checking
       that it's children also match the same pattern and so on.

   Circular data structures
       A circular data structure is one which loops back on itself, you can
       make one easily by doing

         my @b;
         my @a = (1, 2, 3, \@b);
         push(@b, \@a);

       now @a contains a reference to be @b and @b contains a reference to @a.
       This causes problems if you have a program that wants to look inside @a
       and keep looking deeper and deeper at every level, it could get caught
       in an infinite loop looking into @a then @b then @a then @b and so on.

       Test::Deep avoids this problem so we can extend our example further by
       saying that a person should also list their parents.

         my $name_re = re('^(Mr|Mrs|Miss) \w+ \w+$');
         my $person_cmp = {
           Name => $name_re,
           Phone => re('^0d{6}$'),
           # note no mention of Children here

         $person_cmp->{Children} = each_array($person_cmp);
         $person_cmp->{Parents} = each_array($person_cmp);

         cmp_deeply($person, $person_cmp, "person ok");

       So this will check that for each child $child in "$person->{Children}"
       that the "$child->{Parents}" matches $person_cmp however it is smart
       enough not to get caught in an infinite loop where it keeps bouncing
       between the same Parent and Child.

       "cmp_deeply($got, $expected, $name)" takes 3 arguments. $got is the
       structure that you are checking, you must not include any special
       comparisons in this structure or you will get a fatal error. $expected
       describes what Test::Deep will be looking for in $got. You can put
       special comparisons in $expected if you want to.

       As Test::Deep descends through the 2 structures, it compares them one
       piece at a time, so at any point in the process, Test::Deep is thinking
       about 2 things - the current value from $got and the current value from
       $expected. In the documentation, I call them $got_v and "exp_v"


         my $ok = cmp_deeply($got, $expected, $name)

       $got is the result to be checked. $expected is the structure against
       which $got will be check. $name is the test name.

       This is the main comparison function, the others are just wrappers
       around this.  $got and $expected are compared recursively.  Each value
       in $expected defines what's expected at the corresponding location in
       $got.  Simple scalars are compared with "eq".  References to structures
       like hashes and arrays are compared recursively.

       Items in $expected, though, can also represent complex tests that check
       for numbers in a given range, hashes with at least a certain set of
       keys, a string matching a regex, or many other things.

       See "WHAT ARE SPECIAL COMPARISONS" for details.


         my $ok = cmp_bag(\@got, \@bag, $name)

       Is shorthand for cmp_deeply(\@got, bag(@bag), $name)

       n.b.: Both arguments must be array refs. If they aren't an exception
       will be thrown.


         my $ok = cmp_set(\@got, \@set, $name)

       Is shorthand for cmp_deeply(\@got, set(@set), $name)


         my $ok = cmp_methods(\@got, \@methods, $name)

       Is shorthand for cmp_deeply(\@got, methods(@methods), $name)


         my $ok = eq_deeply($got, $expected)

       This is the same as cmp_deeply() except it just returns true or false.
       It does not create diagnostics or talk to Test::Builder, but if you
       want to use it in a non-testing environment then you should import it
       through Test::Deep::NoTest. For example

         use Test::Deep::NoTest;
         print "a equals b" unless eq_deeply($a, $b);

       otherwise the Test::Builder framework will be loaded and testing
       messages will be output when your program ends.


         ($ok, $stack) = cmp_details($got, $expected)

       This behaves much like eq_deeply, but it additionally allows you to
       produce diagnostics in case of failure by passing the value in $stack
       to "deep_diag".

       Do not make assumptions about the structure or content of $stack and do
       not use it if $ok contains a true value.

       See "USING TEST::DEEP WITH TEST::BUILDER" for example uses.

       In the documentation below, $got_v is used to indicate any given value
       within the $got structure.


         cmp_deeply( $got, ignore() );

       This makes Test::Deep skip tests on $got_v. No matter what value $got_v
       has, Test::Deep will think it's correct. This is useful if some part of
       the structure you are testing is very complicated and already tested
       elsewhere, or if it is unpredictable.

             name    => 'John',
             rando m => ignore(),
             address => [ '5 A street', 'a town', 'a country' ],

       is the equivalent of checking

         $got->{name} eq 'John';
         exists $got->{random};
         cmp_deeply($got->{address}, ['5 A street', 'a town', 'a country']);


         cmp_deeply( $got, methods(%hash) );

       %hash is a hash of method call => expected value pairs.

       This lets you call methods on an object and check the result of each
       call.  The methods will be called in the order supplied. If you want to
       pass arguments to the method you should wrap the method name and
       arguments in an array reference.

           methods(name => "John", ["favourite", "food"] => "taco")

       is roughly the equivalent of checking that

         $obj->name eq "John"
         $obj->favourite("food") eq "taco"

       The methods will be called in the order you supply them and will be
       called in scalar context. If you need to test methods called in list
       context then you should use "listmethods()".

       NOTE Just as in a normal test script, you need to be careful if the
       methods you call have side effects like changing the object or other
       objects in the structure. Although the order of the methods is fixed,
       the order of some other tests is not so if $expected is

           manager => methods(@manager_methods),
           coder => methods(@coder_methods)

       there is no way to know which if manager and coder will be tested
       first. If the methods you are testing depend on and alter global
       variables or if manager and coder are the same object then you may run
       into problems.


         cmp_deeply( $got, listmethods(%hash) );

       %hash is a hash of pairs mapping method names to expected return

       This is almost identical to methods() except the methods are called in
       list context instead of scalar context. This means that the expected
       return values supplied must be in array references.

             name => "John",
             ["favourites", "food"] => ["Mapo tofu", "Gongbao chicken"]

       is the equivalent of checking that

         $obj->name eq "John"
         cmp_deeply([$obj->favourites("food")], ["Mapo tofu", "Gongbao chicken"]);

       The methods will be called in the order you supply them.

       NOTE The same caveats apply as for methods().


         cmp_deeply( $got, shallow($thing) );

       $thing is a ref.

       This prevents Test::Deep from looking inside $thing. It allows you to
       check that $got_v and $thing are references to the same variable. So

         my @a = @b = (1, 2, 3);
         cmp_deeply(\@a, \@b);

       will pass because @a and @b have the same elements however

         cmp_deeply(\@a, shallow(\@b))

       will fail because although "\@a" and "\@b" both contain "1, 2, 3" they
       are references to different arrays.


         cmp_deeply( $got, noclass($thing) );

       $thing is a structure to be compared against.

       This makes Test::Deep ignore the class of objects, so it just looks at
       the data they contain. Class checking will be turned off until
       Test::Deep is finished comparing $got_v against $thing. Once Test::Deep
       comes out of $thing it will go back to it's previous setting for
       checking class.

       This can be useful when you want to check that objects have been
       constructed correctly but you don't want to write lots of "bless"es. If
       @people is an array of Person objects then

         cmp_deeply(\@people, [
           bless {name => 'John', phone => '555-5555'}, "Person",
           bless {name => 'Anne', phone => '444-4444'}, "Person",

       can be replaced with

         cmp_deeply(\@people, noclass([
           {name => 'John', phone => '555-5555'},
           {name => 'Anne', phone => '444-4444'}

       However, this is testing so you should also check that the objects are
       blessed correctly. You could use a map to bless all those hashes or you
       could do a second test like

         cmp_deeply(\@people, array_each(isa("Person"));


         cmp_deeply( $got, useclass($thing) );

       This turns back on the class comparison while inside a "noclass()".

               useclass( $object )

       In this example the class of the array reference in $got is ignored but
       the class of $object is checked, as is the class of everything inside


         cmp_deeply( $got, re($regexp, $capture_data, $flags) );

       $regexp is either a regular expression reference produced with
       "qr/.../" or a string which will be used to construct a regular

       $capture_data is optional and is used to check the strings captured by
       an regex. This should can be an array ref or a Test::Deep comparator
       that works on array refs.

       $flags is an optional string which controls whether the regex runs as a
       global match. If $flags is "g" then the regex will run as

       Without $capture_data, this simply compares $got_v with the regular
       expression provided. So

         cmp_deeply($got, [ re("ferg") ])

       is the equivalent of

         $got->[0] =~ /ferg/

       With $capture_data,

         cmp_deeply($got, [re($regex, $capture_data)])

       is the equivalent of

         my @data = $got->[0] =~ /$regex/;
         cmp_deeply(\@data, $capture_data);

       So you can do something simple like

         cmp_deeply($got, re(qr/(\d\d)(\w\w)/, [25, "ab" ]))

       to check that "(\d\d)" was 25 and "(\w\w)" was "ab" but you can also
       use Test::Deep objects to do more complex testing of the captured

             set(qw( cat sheep dog )),

       here, the regex will match the string and will capture the animal names
       and check that they match the specified set, in this case it will fail,
       complaining that "goat" is not in the set.


         cmp_deeply( $got, all(@expecteds) );

       @expecteds is an array of expected structures.

       This allows you to compare data against multiple expected results and
       make sure each of them matches.

         cmp_deeply($got, all(isa("Person"), methods(name => 'John')))

       is equivalent to

         $got->name eq 'John'

       If either test fails then the whole thing is considered a fail. This is
       a short-circuit test, the testing is stopped after the first failure,
       although in the future it may complete all tests so that diagnostics
       can be output for all failures. When reporting failure, the parts are
       counted from 1.

       Thanks to the magic of overloading, you can write

         any( re("^wi"), all(isa("Person"), methods(name => 'John')) )


          re("^wi") | isa("Person") & methods(name => 'John')

       Note single "|" not double, as "||" cannot be overloaded. This will
       only work when there is a special comparison involved. If you write

         "john" | "anne" | "robert"

       Perl will turn this into


       which is presumably not what you wanted. This is because perl ors them
       together as strings before Test::Deep gets a chance to do any overload


         cmp_deeply( $got, any(@expecteds) );

       @expecteds is an array of expected structures.

       This can be used to compare data against multiple expected results and
       make sure that at least one of them matches. This is a short-circuit
       test so if a test passes then none of the tests after that will be

       You can also use overloading with "|" similarly to all().


         cmp_deeply( $got, Isa($class) );


         cmp_deeply( $got, isa($class) );

       $class is a class name.

       This uses "UNIVERSAL::isa()" to check that $got_v is blessed into the
       class $class.

       NOTE: "Isa()" does exactly as documented here, but "isa()" is slightly
       different. If "isa()" is called with 1 argument it falls through to
       "Isa()". If "isa()" called with 2 arguments, it falls through to
       "UNIVERSAL::isa". This is to prevent breakage when you import "isa()"
       into a package that is used as a class. Without this, anyone calling
       "Class->isa($other_class)" would get the wrong answer. This is a hack
       to patch over the fact that "isa" is exported by default.


         cmp_deeply( $got, obj_isa($class) );

       This test accepts only objects that are instances of $class or a
       subclass.  Unlike the "Isa" test, this test will never accept class


         cmp_deeply( \@got, array_each($thing) );

       $thing is a structure to be compared against.

       <$got_v> must be an array reference. Each element of it will be
       compared to $thing. This is useful when you have an array of similar
       things, for example objects of a known type and you don't want to have
       to repeat the same test for each one.

         my $common_tests = all(
              handle => isa("IO::Handle")
              filename => re("^/home/ted/tmp"),

         cmp_deeply($got, array_each($common_tests));

       is similar to

         foreach my $got_v (@$got) {
           cmp_deeply($got_v, $common_tests)

       Except it will not explode if $got is not an array reference. It will
       check that each of the objects in @$got is a MyFile and that each one
       gives the correct results for it's methods.

       You could go further, if for example there were 3 files and you knew
       the size of each one you could do this

               methods(size => 1000),
               methods(size => 200),
               methods(size => 20)
         cmp_deeply($got, array_each($structure));


         cmp_deeply( \%got, hash_each($thing) );

       This test behaves like "array_each" (see above) but tests that each
       hash value passes its tests.


         cmp_deeply( $got, str($string) );

       $string is a string.

       This will stringify $got_v and compare it to $string using "eq", even
       if $got_v is a ref. It is useful for checking the stringified value of
       an overloaded reference.


         cmp_deeply( $got, num($number, $tolerance) );

       $number is a number.

       $tolerance is an optional number.

       This will add 0 to $got_v and check if it's numerically equal to
       $number, even if $got_v is a ref. It is useful for checking the
       numerical value of an overloaded reference. If $tolerance is supplied
       then this will check that $got_v and $exp_v are less than $tolerance
       apart. This is useful when comparing floating point numbers as rounding
       errors can make it hard or impossible for $got_v to be exactly equal to
       $exp_v. When $tolerance is supplied, the test passes if "abs($got_v -
       $exp_v) <= $tolerance".

       Note in Perl, ""12blah" == 12" because Perl will be smart and convert
       "12blah" into 12. You may not want this. There was a strict mode but
       that is now gone. A "looks like a number" test will replace it soon.
       Until then you can usually just use the string() comparison to be more
       strict. This will work fine for almost all situations, however it will
       not work when <$got_v> is an overloaded value who's string and
       numerical values differ.


         cmp_deeply( $got, bool($value) );

       $value is anything you like but it's probably best to use 0 or 1

       This will check that $got_v and $value have the same truth value, that
       is they will give the same result when used in boolean context, like in
       an "if()" statement.


         cmp_deeply( $got, code(\&subref) );

       "\&subref" is a reference to a subroutine which will be passed a single
       argument, it then should return a true or false and possibly a string

       This will pass $got_v to the subroutine which returns true or false to
       indicate a pass or fail. Fails can be accompanied by a diagnostic
       string which gives an explanation of why it's a fail.

         sub check_name
           my $name = shift;
           if ($boss->likes($name))
             return 1;
             return (0, "the boss doesn't like your name");

         cmp_deeply("Brian", code(\&check_name));

       Set comparisons give special semantics to array comparisons:

       o   The order of items in a set is irrelevant

       o   The presence of duplicate items in a set is ignored.

       As such, in any set comparison, the following arrays are equal:

         [ 1, 2 ]
         [ 1, 1, 2 ]
         [ 1, 2, 1 ]
         [ 2, 1, 1 ]
         [ 1, 1, 2 ]

       All are interpreted by "set" semantics as if the set was only specified

         [ 1, 2 ]

       All "set" functions return an object which can have additional items
       added to it:

         my $set = set( 1, 2 );
         $set->add(1, 3, 1 );  # Set is now ( 1, 2, 3 )

       Special care must be taken when using special comparisons within sets.


         cmp_deeply( \@got, set(@elements) );

       This does a set comparison, that is, it compares two arrays but ignores
       the order of the elements and it ignores duplicate elements, but
       ensures that all items in in @elements will be in $got and all items in
       $got will be in @elements.

       So the following tests will be passes, and will be equivalent:

         cmp_deeply([1, 2, 2, 3], set(3, 2, 1, 1));
         cmp_deeply([1, 2, 3],    set(3, 2, 1));


         cmp_deeply( \@got, supersetof(@elements) );

       This function works much like "set", and performs a set comparison of
       $got_v with the elements of @elements.

       "supersetof" is however slightly relaxed, such that $got may contain
       things not in @elements, but must at least contain all @elements.

       These two statements are equivalent, and will be passes:

         cmp_deeply([1,2,3,3,4,5], supersetof(2,2,3));
         cmp_deeply([1,2,3,4,5],   supersetof(2,3));

       But these will be failures:

         cmp_deeply([1,2,3,4,5],   supersetof(2,3,6)); # 6 not in superset
         cmp_deeply([1],           supersetof(1,2));   # 2 not in superset


         cmp_deeply( \@got, subsetof(@elements) );

       This function works much like "set", and performs a set comparison of
       $got_v with the elements of @elements.

       This is the inverse of "supersetof", which expects all unique elements
       found in $got_v must be in @elements.

         cmp_deeply([1,2,4,5], subsetof(2,3,3)    ) # Fail: 1,4 & 5 extra
         cmp_deeply([2,3,3],   subsetof(1,2,4,5)  ) # Fail: 3 extra
         cmp_deeply([2,3,3],   subsetof(1,2,4,5,3)) # Pass


         cmp_deeply( \@got, noneof(@elements) );

       @elements is an array of elements, wherein no elements in @elements may
       be found in $got_v.

       For example:

         # Got has no 1, no 2, and no 3
         cmp_deeply( [1], noneof( 1, 2, 3 ) ); # fail
         cmp_deeply( [5], noneof( 1, 2, 3 ) ); # pass

       Bag comparisons give special semantics to array comparisons, that are
       similar to set comparisons, but slightly different.

       o   The order of items in a bag is irrelevant

       o   The presence of duplicate items in a bag is PRESERVED

       As such, in any bag comparison, the following arrays are equal:

         [ 1, 1, 2 ]
         [ 1, 2, 1 ]
         [ 2, 1, 1 ]
         [ 1, 1, 2 ]

       However, they are NOT equal to any of the following:

         [ 1, 2 ]
         [ 1, 2, 2 ]
         [ 1, 1, 1, 2 ]

       All "bag" functions return an object which can have additional items
       added to it:

         my $bag = bag( 1, 2 );
         $bag->add(1, 3, 1 );  # Bag is now ( 1, 1, 1, 2, 3 )

       Special care must be taken when using special comparisons within bags.


         cmp_deeply( \@got, bag(@elements) );

       This does an order-insensitive bag comparison between $got and
       @elements, ensuring that:

       each item in @elements is found in $got
       the number of times a $expected_v is found in @elements is reflected in
       no items are found in $got other than those in @elements.

       As such, the following are passes, and are equivalent to each other:

         cmp_deeply([1, 2, 2], bag(2, 2, 1))
         cmp_deeply([2, 1, 2], bag(2, 2, 1))
         cmp_deeply([2, 2, 1], bag(2, 2, 1))

       But the following are failures:

         cmp_deeply([1, 2, 2],     bag(2, 2, 1, 1)) # Not enough 1's in Got
         cmp_deeply([1, 2, 2, 1],  bag(2, 2, 1)   ) # Too many   1's in Got


         cmp_deeply( \@got, superbagof( @elements ) );

       This function works much like "bag", and performs a bag comparison of
       $got_v with the elements of @elements.

       "superbagof" is however slightly relaxed, such that $got may contain
       things not in @elements, but must at least contain all @elements.


         # pass
         cmp_deeply( [1, 1, 2], superbagof( 1 )      );

         # fail: not enough 1's in superbag
         cmp_deeply( [1, 1, 2], superbagof( 1, 1, 1 ));


         cmp_deeply( \@got, subbagof(@elements) );

       This function works much like "bag", and performs a bag comparison of
       $got_v with the elements of @elements.

       This is the inverse of "superbagof", and expects all elements in $got
       to be in @elements, while allowing items to exist in @elements that are
       not in $got

         # pass
         cmp_deeply( [1],        subbagof( 1, 1, 2 ) );

         # fail: too many 1's in subbag
         cmp_deeply( [1, 1, 1],  subbagof( 1, 1, 2 ) );

       Typically, if you're doing simple hash comparisons,

         cmp_deeply( \%got, \%expected )

       is sufficient. "cmp_deeply" will ensure %got and %hash have identical
       keys, and each key from either has the same corresponding value.


         cmp_deeply( \%got, superhashof(\%hash) );

       This will check that the hash %$got is a "super-hash" of %hash. That is
       that all the key and value pairs in %hash appear in %$got but %$got can
       have extra ones also.

       For example

         cmp_deeply({a => 1, b => 2}, superhashof({a => 1}))

       will pass but

         cmp_deeply({a => 1, b => 2}, superhashof({a => 1, c => 3}))

       will fail.


         cmp_deeply( \%got, subhashof(\%hash) );

       This will check that the hash %$got is a "sub-hash" of %hash. That is
       that all the key and value pairs in %$got also appear in %hash.

       For example

         cmp_deeply({a => 1}, subhashof({a => 1, b => 2}))

       will pass but

         cmp_deeply({a => 1, c => 3}, subhashof({a => 1, b => 2}))

       will fail.


         my $reason = deep_diag($stack);

       $stack is a value returned by cmp_details.  Do not call this function
       if cmp_details returned a true value for $ok.

       "deep_diag()" returns a human readable string describing how the
       comparison failed.

       You've written a module to handle people and their film interests. Say
       you have a function that returns an array of people from a query, each
       person is a hash with 2 keys: Name and Age and the array is sorted by
       Name. You can do

             {Name => 'Anne', Age => 26},
             {Name => "Bill", Age => 47}
             {Name => 'John', Age => 25},

       Soon after, your query function changes and all the results now have an
       ID field. Now your test is failing again because you left out ID from
       each of the hashes. The problem is that the IDs are generated by the
       database and you have no way of knowing what each person's ID is. With
       Test::Deep you can change your query to

             {Name => 'John', Age => 25, ID => ignore()},
             {Name => 'Anne', Age => 26, ID => ignore()},
             {Name => "Bill", Age => 47, ID => ignore()}

       But your test still fails. Now, because you're using a database, you no
       longer know what order the people will appear in. You could add a sort
       into the database query but that could slow down your application.
       Instead you can get Test::Deep to ignore the order of the array by
       doing a bag comparison instead.

             {Name => 'John', Age => 25, ID => ignore()},
             {Name => 'Anne', Age => 26, ID => ignore()},
             {Name => "Bill", Age => 47, ID => ignore()}

       Finally person gets even more complicated and includes a new field
       called Movies, this is a list of movies that the person has seen
       recently, again these movies could also come back in any order so we
       need a bag inside our other bag comparison, giving us something like

             {Name => 'John', Age => 25, ID => ignore(), Movies => bag(...)},
             {Name => 'Anne', Age => 26, ID => ignore(), Movies => bag(...)},
             {Name => "Bill", Age => 47, ID => ignore(), Movies => bag(...)}

       Combining "cmp_details" and "test_diag" makes it possible to use
       Test::Deep in your own test classes.

       In a Test::Builder subclass, create a test method in the following

         sub behaves_ok {
           my $self = shift;
           my $expected = shift;
           my $test_name = shift;

           my $got = do_the_important_work_here();

           my ($ok, $stack) = cmp_details($got, $expected);
           unless ($Test->ok($ok, $test_name)) {
             my $diag = deep_diag($stack);

       As the subclass defines a test class, not tests themselves, make sure
       it uses Test::Deep::NoTest, not "Test::Deep" itself.

       Currently any CODE, GLOB or IO refs will be compared using shallow(),
       which means only their memory addresses are compared.

       There is a bug in set and bag compare to do with competing SCs. It only
       occurs when you put certain special comparisons inside bag or set
       comparisons you don't need to worry about it. The full details are in
       the "bag()" docs. It will be fixed in an upcoming version.

       If you use certain special comparisons within a bag or set comparison
       there is a danger that a test will fail when it should have passed. It
       can only happen if two or more special comparisons in the bag are
       competing to match elements.  Consider this comparison

         cmp_deeply(['furry', 'furball'], bag(re("^fur"), re("furb")))

       There are two things that could happen, hopefully "re("^fur")" is
       paired with "furry" and "re("^furb")" is paired with "furb" and
       everything is fine but it could happen that "re("^fur")" is paired with
       "furball" and then "re("^furb")" cannot find a match and so the test
       fails. Examples of other competing comparisons are "bag(1, 2, 2)" vs
       "set(1, 2)" and "methods(m1 => "v1", m2 => "v2")" vs "methods(m1 =>

       This problem is could be solved by using a slower and more complicated
       algorithm for set and bag matching. Something for the future...

       A special comparison (SC) is simply an object that inherits from
       Test::Deep::Cmp. Whenever $expected_v is an SC then instead of checking
       "$got_v eq $expected_v", we pass control over to the SC and let it do
       it's thing.

       Test::Deep exports lots of SC constructors, to make it easy for you to
       use them in your test scripts. For example is "re("hello")" is just a
       handy way of creating a Test::Deep::Regexp object that will match any
       string containing "hello". So

         cmp_deeply([ 'a', 'b', 'hello world'], ['a', 'b', re("^hello")]);

       will check 'a' eq 'a', 'b' eq 'b' but when it comes to comparing 'hello
       world' and "re("^hello")" it will see that $expected_v is an SC and so
       will pass control to the Test::Deep::Regexp class by do something like
       "$expected_v->descend($got_v)". The "descend()" method should just
       return true or false.

       This gives you enough to write your own SCs but I haven't documented
       how diagnostics works because it's about to get an overhaul.

       By default, Test::Deep will export everything in its "v0" tag, as if
       you had written:

         use Test::Deep ':v0';

       Those things are:

         all any array array_each arrayelementsonly arraylength arraylengthonly bag
         blessed bool cmp_bag cmp_deeply cmp_methods cmp_set code eq_deeply hash
         hash_each hashkeys hashkeysonly ignore Isa isa listmethods methods noclass
         none noneof num obj_isa re reftype regexpmatches regexponly regexpref
         regexprefonly scalarrefonly scalref set shallow str subbagof subhashof
         subsetof superbagof superhashof supersetof useclass

       A slightly better set of exports is the "v1" set.  It's all the same
       things, with the exception of "Isa" and "blessed".  If you want to
       import "everything", you probably want to "use Test::Deep ':V1';".

       There's another magic export group:  ":preload".  If that is specified,
       all of the Test::Deep plugins will be loaded immediately instead of


         Ricardo Signes <>

       Fergal Daly <>, with thanks to Michael G Schwern for
       Test::More's is_deeply function which inspired this.

       Please do not bother Fergal Daly with bug reports.  Send them to the
       maintainer (above) or submit them at the issue tracker

       Copyright 2003, 2004 by Fergal Daly <>.

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the same terms as Perl itself.


perl v5.20.2                      2017-05-04                   Test::Deep(3pm)

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