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GNUstep(7)                   GNUstep System Manual                  GNUstep(7)

       GNUstep - A free implementation of the OpenStep standard

       GNUstep  provides  an Object-Oriented application development framework
       and toolset for use on a wide variety of computer  platforms.   GNUstep
       is  based on the original OpenStep specification provided by NeXT, Inc.
       (now Apple).

       GNUstep is written in Objective-C, an object-oriented superset of the C
       programming  language, similar to SmallTalk. However there exist a num-
       ber of brigdes and interfaces to develop GNUstep programs  using  other
       languages like JAVA or Ruby.

       The  GNUstep  core  system  consists  of the following parts, which are
       jointly refered to as gnustep-core :

              A set of scripts and makefiles that heavily  ease  the  creation
              and maintenance of software projects.

              The  FoundationKit  libraries for non-GUI tools providing every-
              thing from string and array classes, filemanager classes to dis-
              tributed objects.

              The  ApplicationKit  containing  widgets,  workspace classes and
              means for applications to interact with the user.  This  is  the
              frontend of GNUstep's GUI part.

              This  is the backend of GNUstep's GUI part which does the actual
              rendering and  event  handling.  It  acts  as  a  layer  between
              gnustep-gui and the operating/drawing system. Backends exist for
              X11 (one using cairo, one using libart, one using xlib  drawing)
              and win32.

       Apart  from  the  above,  there exist a number of addon libraries, like
       Renaissance which allows developers to specify  an  application's  user
       interface  in  xml.  For  database  access, there is GDL2 - the GNUstep
       Database Library. Please refer to the GNUstep website for more informa-

       GNUstep  per  default  is  self-contained.  That means that all GNUstep
       applications, tools, libraries  and  add-ons  are  installed  into  the
       GNUstep  directory  hierarchy.  However  as of gnustep-make-2.0.0 it is
       also possible to install everything in compliance with other filesystem
       hierarchies.  See the FilesystemLayouts directory in the source package
       of gnustep-make for more information.

       There are four domains which are searched for files: the System domain,
       which should only contain the core system files, the Local domain which
       stores all that has later been installed on  the  system,  the  Network
       domain  which  should  be used for importing data from a remote system,
       and the User domain which resides in the user's home directory  (mostly

       A  complete  description  of the default GNUstep layout can be found in
       the filesystem.pdf.

       In the world of GNUstep the term tool refers to command  line  programs
       whereas  applications are fully fledged GUI programs.  Naturally, tools
       reside in the domains' Tools folder, applications can be found  in  the
       domains' Applications folder.

       Applications  are either launched using the openapp command or from the

       In GNUstep applications globally offer functionality to other  applica-
       tions  through services.  They can be reached through the Services menu
       entry in an application's main menu. Apart  from  services  offered  by
       applications,  there may be programs whose sole purpose is the offering
       of services. They can be found in the domains' Libary/Services folders.

       The make_services tool makes sure  the  services  are  known  to  other
       applications when a application is newly installed.

       A  bundle is a collection of resources making up a discrete package for
       use. There are currently three types of bundles:  applications,  frame-
       works and loadable bundles.

       A loadable bundle is a kind of plug-in. There are two types of loadable
       bundles, namely plug-ins and palettes. The plug-in is noramlly  refered
       to  as a bundle, which can make it a bit confusing. A plug-in is a bun-
       dle that can be loaded by an application to  provide  additional  func-
       tionality,  while  a  palette  is  a  plug-in  for  GORM, the interface
       builder. A palette is used to extend GORM with custom UI objects.  Pal-
       ettes have a .palette extension.

       The  central  place of the user interface is the Workspace or Workspace
       Manager which acts as an interface between the user and  parts  of  the
       system  like files, processes, etc. The GWorkspace application provides
       this functionality in GNUstep. See  the  GWorkspace  website  for  more

       What  would  a  development  environment be without the applications to
       create applications? The applications provided  by  GNUstep  for  Rapid
       Application Development are:

       GORM   GORM  is the interface modeler. With GORM you can quickly create
              the graphical interface of your application.

       Project Center
              Project Center is the program where you can  develop  your  pro-
              gram.  It  offers  you  automatic  generation  of GNUmakefiles ,
              project maintenance and of course a code editor.

       gcc(1), gdnc(1), gdomap(8), gopen(1), gpbs(1), make(1), openapp(1)

       GNUstep Websites:
              Official GNUstep website
              GNUstep Wiki (lots of useful information)
              GNUstep Project Page
              GNUstep Documentation Library
              Collaboration World, the home of GNUmail
              The home of GWorkspace, JIGS, Renaissance and programming  tuto-

              Mailing lists and mailing list archives.


       #GNUstep on FreeNode
              You  are  invited  to  join the #GNUstep IRC channel on FreeNode

       GNUstep was at first a collaboration of two  projects  that  wanted  to
       create  a single GNUstep project that complied to the OpenStep specifi-
       cation provided by NeXT Computer, Inc. and SunSoft, Inc. Development of
       this joint effort started around 1993-1994. For a more detailed history
       description see the GNUstep Documentation Library referenced in the SEE
       ALSO section.

       GNUstep is developed and maintained by a large number of people. Please
       see <> for a list.

       This man-page was first written by Martin Brecher <martin@mb-itconsult-> in august of 2003.

       In  December  2007 it was expanded by Dennis Leeuw <>
       and made to comply with the gnustep-make-2.0.x releases.

gnustep-core                      15/12/2007                        GNUstep(7)

Czas wygenerowania: 0.00014 sek.

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