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Date::Manip::Problems(User Contributed Perl DocumentDate::Manip::Problems(3pm)

       Date::Manip::Problems - problems and bugs

       The following are not bugs in Date::Manip, but they may give some
       people problems.

       Memory leak
           There is a known memory leak in perl related to named regexp
           captures that directly affects Date::Manip . The leak is in all
           versions of perl up to (and including) the following versions:


           The bug has been fixed in:


           If a maintenance release is done for any of the other releases
           (5.10, 5.12, 5.14), that includes the patch, I'll update this
           section to include that information.

           Date::Manip 5.xx is not susceptible, so using it may be a feasible
           workaround, but if you need accurate timezone handling, this isn't

           Simple tests estimate the leak to be about 3 MB per 10,000 dates
           parsed, so unless you're parsing hundreds of thousands, or millions
           of dates, the leak probably won't be a problem on systems with
           moderate amounts of memory. And if you're parsing that many dates,
           the relatively slow Date::Manip may not be the correct module for
           you to use anyway.

       Unable to determine Time Zone
           Please refer to the Date::Manip::TZ documentation for a discussion
           of this problem.

       Dmake error on strawberry perl
           Users of Strawberry perl on windows may encounter an error similar
           to the following:

              dmake: makefile: line 3016: Error: -- Input line too long, increase MAXLINELENGTH

           This is a known problem with some versions of strawberry perl, and
           I can't fix it in Date::Manip.  If you encounter this problem, you
           can install the package manually using the commands:

              c:> cpan
              cpan> look Date::Manip::Date
              > perl Makefile.PL
              > dmake MAXLINELENGTH=300000 make
              > dmake MAXLINELENGTH=300000 make test
              > dmake MAXLINELENGTH=300000 make install

           You can find more details here:


       Calculations appear to be off by an hour
           Due to daylight saving time (especially the spring change where the
           time typically moves forward from 02:00 to 03:00), any date
           calculation which would intuitively report a time in that range
           will also move forward (or backward as the case may be).

           *NOTE* This should be less of a problem since 6.30 with the
           addition of semi-exact deltas.

       Missing date formats
           Due to the large number of date formats that Date::Manip CAN
           process, people often assume that other formats that they want to
           use should work as well, and when they don't, it comes as a

           With the much improved parsing of 6.00, many formats can be added
           easily, though unless they are of general use, I'll probably
           suggest that you use parse_format instead.

           There is a class of formats that I do not plan to add however.

           I have frequently been asked to add formats such as "the 15th of
           last month", or "Monday of next week". I do not intend to add these
           date formats to Date::Manip, but since I have received the request
           several times, I decided to include my reasoning here.

           Date::Manip can parse pretty much any static date format that I
           could think of or find reference to. Dates such as "today", "Jan
           12", or "2001-01-01" are all understood.

           These are fairly limited however. Many very common date formats are
           best thought of as a date plus a modification. For example,
           "yesterday" is actually determined internally as "today" plus a
           modification of "- 1 day".  "2nd Sunday in June" is determined as
           "June 1" modified to the 2nd Sunday.

           As these types of formats were added over time, I quickly realized
           that the number of possible date plus modification formats was
           huge. The number of combinations has caused the parsing in
           Date::Manip to be quite complex, and adding new formats
           occasionally causes unexpected conflicts with other formats.

           The first time I received a request similar to "the 15th of last
           month", I intended to add it, but as I analyzed it to see what
           changes needed to be made to support it, I realized that this
           needed to be expressed as a date plus TWO modifications. In other
           words, today modified to last month modified to the 15th day of the

           As bad as date plus modification formats are, a date plus TWO
           modifications would be exponentially worse. On realizing that, I
           decided that Date::Manip will not support this type of format.

           Although I apologize for the inconvenience, I do not intend to
           change my position on this.

       Date::Manip is slow
           NOTE: The following section applies primarily to 5.xx. I'm doing a
           lot of work to optimize Date::Manip and I will rewrite this section
           to take this into account, and to provide performance suggestions.
           It should be noted that initial tests show version 6.xx to be
           around twice as fast as 5.xx (though still considerably slower than
           some of the other modules).

           Date::Manip is probably one of the slower Date/Time modules due to
           the fact that it is huge and written entirely in perl.

           Some things that will definitely help:

           ISO-8601 dates are parsed first and fastest.  Use them whenever

           Avoid parsing dates that are referenced against the current time
           (in 2 days, today at noon, etc.).  These take a lot longer to

           Business date calculations are extremely slow.  You should consider
           alternatives if possible (i.e. doing the calculation in exact mode
           and then multiplying by 5/7).  Who needs a business date more
           accurate than "6 to 8 weeks" anyway, right :-)

       Using functions/methods which are not supported
           There have been a handful of incidents of people using a function
           from Date::Manip which were not documented in the manual.

           Date::Manip consists of a large number of user functions which are
           documented in the manual. These are designed to be used by other
           programmers, and I will not make any backwards incompatible changes
           in them unless there is a very compelling reason to do so, and in
           that case, the change will be clearly documented in the
           Date::Manip::Changes6 documentation for this module.

           Date::Manip also includes a large number of functions which are NOT
           documented. These are for internal use only.  Please do not use
           them!  I can (and do) change their functionality, and even their
           name, without notice, and without apology!  Some of these internal
           functions even have test scripts, but that is not a guarantee that
           they will not change, nor is any support implied. I simply like to
           run regression tests on as much of Date::Manip as possible.

           As of the most recent versions of Date::Manip, all internal
           functions have names that begin with an underscore (_). If you
           choose to use them directly, it is quite possible that new versions
           of Date::Manip will cause your programs to break due to a change in
           how those functions work.

           Any changes to internal functions will not be documented, and will
           not be regarded by me as a backwards incompatibility. Nor will I
           (as was requested in one instance) revert to a previous version of
           the internal function.

           If you feel that an internal function is of more general use, feel
           free to contact me with an argument of why it should be "promoted".
           I welcome suggestions and will definitely consider any such

       RCS Control
           If you try to put Date::Manip under RCS control, you are going to
           have problems.  Apparently, RCS replaces strings of the form
           "$Date...$" with the current date.  This form occurs all over in
           Date::Manip.  To prevent the RCS keyword expansion, checkout files

              co -ko

           Since very few people will ever have a desire to do this (and I
           don't use RCS), I have not worried about it, and I do not intend to
           try to workaround this problem.

       Date::Manip 6.xx has gotten some complaints (far more than 5.xx if the
       truth be told), so I'd like to address a couple of them here.  Perhaps
       an understanding of why some of the changes were made will allay some
       of the complaints.  If not, people are always welcome to stick with the
       5.xx release. I will continue to support the 5.xx releases for a couple
       years (though I do NOT plan to add functionality to it).

       These complaints come both from both the CPAN ratings site:

       and from personal email.

       Requires perl 5.10
           The single most controversial change made in 6.00 is that it now
           required perl 5.10.0 or higher. Most of the negative feedback I've
           received is due to this.

           In the past, I've avoided using new features of perl in order to
           allow Date::Manip to run on older versions of perl.  Prior to perl
           5.10, none of the new features would have had a major impact on how
           Date::Manip was written so this practice was justified. That all
           changed with the release of perl 5.10.

           One of the aspects of Date::Manip that has received the most
           positive response is the ability to parse almost every conceivable
           date format.  Unfortunately, as I've added formats, the parsing
           routine became more and more complicated, and maintaining it was
           one of the least enjoyable aspect in maintaining Date::Manip . In
           fact, for several years I'd been extremely reluctant to add new
           formats due to the fact that too often, adding a new format broke
           other formats.

           As I was rewriting Date::Manip, I was looking for ways to improve
           the parsing and to make maintaining it easier. Perl 5.10 provides
           the feature "named capture buffers". Named capture buffers not only
           improves the ease of maintaining the complex regular expressions
           used by Date::Manip, it makes it dramatically easier to add
           additional formats in a way that is much less likely to interfere
           with other formats. The parsing in 6.00 is so much more robust,
           extensible, and flexible, that it will make parser maintenance
           possible for many years to come at a fraction of the effort and

           It was too much to turn down. Hopefully, since 5.10 has been out
           for some time now, this will not prohibit too many people from
           using the new version of Date::Manip. I realize that there are many
           people out there using older versions of perl who do not have the
           option of upgrading perl.  The decision to use 5.10 wasn't made
           lightly... but I don't regret making it. I apologize to users who,
           as a result, cannot use 6.00 . Hopefully in the future you'll be
           able to benefit from the improvements in 6.00.

           One complaint I've received is that this in some way makes
           Date::Manip backwards incompatible, but this is not an accurate
           complaint. Version 6.xx DOES include some backwards
           incompatibilities (and these are covered in the
           Date::Manip::Migration5to6 document), however in almost all cases,
           these incompatibilities are with infrequently used features, or
           workarounds are in place to allow deprecated features to continue
           functioning for some period of time.

           Though I have no data to confirm this, I suspect that 90% or more
           of all scripts which were written with Date::Manip 5.xx will
           continue to work unmodified with 6.xx (of course, you should still
           refer to the migration document to see what features are deprecated
           or changed to make sure that you don't need to modify your script
           so that it will continue to work in the future). Even with scripts
           that need to be changed, the changes should be trivial.

           So, Date::Manip 6.xx is almost entirely backward compatible with
           5.xx (to the extent that you would expect any major version release
           to be compatible with a previous major version).

           The change is only in the requirements necessary to get Date::Manip
           6.xx to run.

           Obviously, it's not reasonable to say that Date::Manip should never
           be allowed to switch minimum perl versions. At some point, you have
           to let go of an old version if you want to make use of the features
           of the newer version. The question is, did I jump to 5.10 too fast?

           The negative ratings I see in the CPAN ratings complain that I no
           longer support perl 5.6 and perl 5.8.

           With respect to 5.6, perl 5.6 was released in March of 2000 (that's
           before Windows XP which was released in 2001). Date::Manip 6.00 was
           released at the end of 2009.  To be honest, I don't really feel
           much sympathy for this complaint. Software that is 9 years old is
           ANCIENT.  People may choose to use it... but please don't complain
           when new software comes out that doesn't support it.

           The argument for perl 5.8 is much more compelling. Although 5.8 was
           released well before Date::Manip 6.00 (July of 2002), there were no
           major perl releases until 5.10 came out in December of 2007, so 5.8
           was state-of-the art as little as 2 years prior to the release of
           Date::Manip 6.xx.

           I agree completely with the argument that abandoning 5.8 only 2
           years after it was the current version is too soon. For that
           reason, I will continue to support the Date::Manip 5.xx releases
           for some years to come. I don't know exactly how long I'll continue
           to support them, but it'll be at least 2-3 years. Once perl 5.10 is
           5 years old, I'll be much more likely to drop support for the 5.xx
           releases, but I DO want to make use of the features of 5.10 for
           future development.  They make development so much easier, and the
           parsing so much more robust (something I've wanted for years), that
           I'm not willing to give up the advantages of 5.10.

           But the next complaint is relevant.

       Automatic installs break
           A much more important problem is that versions 6.00 through 6.07
           broke automatic installs for older perl installations. If you try
           to install Date::Manip using the automatic tools (cpan/cpanp), they
           will look for the most recent version. If you are using a version
           of perl older than 5.10, this fails, and rather than looking for an
           older version, the tool simply reports a failure in installing
           Date::Manip.  Technically, the problem is not due to Date::Manip
           itself, but is a result of how perl modules are currently managed.
           However, since Date::Manip is managed by them, it's important to
           avoid causing this type of problem (which I clearly failed to do).

           As of Date::Manip 6.10, this problem should no longer occur.
           Starting with version 6.10, both the 5.xx and 6.xx versions of
           Date::Manip have been combined into a single distribution (so
           Date-Manip-6.10 contained both Date::Manip 6.10 and Date::Manip
           5.57). From Date::Manip 6.10 to 6.13, the perl version was
           determined at install time and either the 5.xx or 6.xx version was
           installed.  From Date::Manip 6.14 on, both versions are installed,
           and at run time, the correct version will be chosen (and if you're
           running a recent version of perl, you can select to run the old or
           new version).

           All future version (for as long as 5.xx is supported) will include
           both the most current 5.xx and 6.xx releases of Date::Manip. In
           this way, automatic install tools will be able to install
           Date::Manip regardless of which version of perl you are running.

       Too many modules
           One minor complaint is that there are too many files. One person
           specifically objects to the fact that there are over 470 modules
           covering non-minute offsets. This complaint is (IMO) silly.

           Date::Manip supports ALL historical time zones, including those
           with non-minute offsets, and so there will be information for those
           time zones, even though they are not currently in use.

           I could of course store all of the information in one big module,
           but that means that you have to load all of that data every time
           you use Date::Manip, and I find that to be a very poor solution.
           Instead, storing the information in a per-time zone and per-offset
           manner dramatically decreases the amount of data that has to be

           While it is true that Date::Manip includes over 900 modules for all
           of the time zone information, most implementations of time zone
           handling also choose to break up the data into a large number of

           My linux distribution (openSuSE 11.2 at the time of writing this)
           uses the standard zoneinfo database, and at this point, there are
           over 1700 files included in /usr/share/zoneinfo (though it does
           appear that there is some duplication of information). Current
           versions of RedHat also use over 1700 files, so Date::Manip isn't
           treating the time zone data in a new or unreasonable way.

       Objects are large
           One complaint that was put on the CPAN ratings site was that the OO
           interface is "a dud" due to the size of it's objects. The complaint
           is that a Date::Manip::Date object is 115K while it should
           (according to the complaint) only require that you need to save the
           seconds from the epoch, zone, and a couple other pieces of
           information, all of which could probably be stored in 100 bytes or

           This complaint is not accurate, and comes from a misunderstanding
           of how Date::Manip objects are created.

           Date::Manip is very configurable, and contains a great deal of
           information which could theoretically be calculated on the fly, but
           which would greatly reduce it's performance. Instead, in the
           interest of improving performance, the data is cached, and since
           the data is virtually all potentially object specific, it has to be
           somehow linked to the object.

           For example, Date::Manip allows you to parse dates in several
           languages.  Each language has a large number of regular expressions
           which are used to do the actual parsing. Instead of recreating
           these regular expressions each time they are needed, they are
           created once and stored in an object (specifically, a
           Date::Manip::Base object).  The size of the Date::Manip::Base
           object is almost 15K (due primarily to the regular expressions used
           in parsing dates in the selected language).

           Similarly, a description of the time zones are stored in a second
           object (a Date::Manip::TZ object).  The size of the Date::Manip::TZ
           object starts at 100K. That may seem excessive, but you have to
           remember that there are almost 500 time zones, and they have to be
           indexed by name, alias, abbreviation, and offset, and by the time
           you do this, it does take a fair bit of space.  It should also be
           noted that the full description of each timezone is only stored in
           the object when the timezone is actually used, so if you use a lot
           of timezones, this object will grow slowly as new timezones are

           The size of the actual Date::Manip::Date object is a little over
           300 bytes.  However, each includes a pointer to a Date::Manip::Base
           and a Date::Manip::TZ object (and due to how the object was being
           looked at in the complaint, they were reporting the size of all
           three objects, NOT just the Date::Manip::Date object).

           Both the Date::Manip::Base and Date::Manip::TZ objects are reused
           by any number of Date::Manip::Date objects. They can almost be
           thought of as global data, except that they are accessible in the
           standard OO manner, and you are allowed to modify them on a per-
           object basis which WILL mean that you have to store more data. If
           you work with multiple configurations (see Date::Manip::Config),
           you'll need multiple Base and TZ objects. However, most of the time
           you will not need to do this.

           The actual Date::Manip::Date object is a bit larger than suggested
           in the complaint, but it should be noted that Date::Manip actually
           stores the dates in a number of different formats (a string of the
           form YYYYMMDDHH:MN:SS and a list [YYYY,MM,DD,HH,MN,SS] in the time
           zone it was parsed in, the local time zone (if different) and GMT.
           By caching this information as it is used, it has a huge impact on
           the performance.

           So, Date::Manip in typical usage consists of one 100K
           Date::Manip::TZ object, one 15K Date::Manip::Base objects, and any
           number of small 300 byte Date::Manip::Date objects.
           Date::Manip::Delta objects are even smaller. Date::Manip::Recur
           objects are also small, but they contain any number of Date objects
           in them.

           I am certainly open to suggestions as to how I can improve the OO
           interface... but I don't believe it is a dud. While I'm not an
           expert at OO programming, I believe that I followed pretty standard
           and accepted procedures for accessing the data.

           Please refer to the Date::Manip::Objects document for more

       Date::Manip has an inconsistent interface
           I've gotten a few complaints that the interface to Date::Manip is
           inconsistent... and I agree (at least when referring to the
           functional interfaces).

           Date::Manip was originally written in an unplanned way... as a
           need/want came up, it was extended. That's not the way to write a
           major package of course, but it wasn't expected to be a major
           package at the start.

           As it became more and more widely used, I too wished for a more
           consistent interface, but I did not want to break backward
           compatibility for everyone using it.

           When 6.xx was written, I spent a good deal of time trying to make a
           very standard OO interface, so I do not believe that this complaint
           can be applied to the OO interface (though I'm interested in
           suggestions for improving it of course).

           As far as the functional interface goes, I'll continue to support
           it in a backward compatible (and therefore inconsistent) form. I'd
           encourage the use of the OO interface whenever possible.

       If you find a bug in Date::Manip, please send it directly to me (see
       the AUTHOR section below).  Alternately, you can submit it on CPAN.
       This can be done at the following URL:

       Please do not use other means to report bugs (such as Usenet
       newsgroups, or forums for a specific OS or Linux distribution) as it is
       impossible for me to keep up with all of them.

       When filing a bug report, please include the following information:

       Date::Manip version
           Please include the version of Date::Manip you are using.  You can
           get this by using the script:

              use Date::Manip;
              print DateManipVersion(1),"\n";


              use Date::Manip::Date;
              $obj = new Date::Manip::Date;
              print $obj->version(1),"\n";

       Perl information
           Please include the output from "perl -V"

       If you have a problem using Date::Manip that perhaps isn't a bug (can't
       figure out the syntax, etc.), you're in the right place.  Start by
       reading the main Date::Manip documentation, and the other documents
       that apply to whatever you are trying to do.  If this still doesn't
       answer your question, mail me directly.

       I would ask that you be reasonably familiar with the documentation
       BEFORE you choose to do this. Date::Manip is a hobby, and I simply do
       not have time to respond to hundreds of questions which are already
       answered in this manual.

       If you find any problems with the documentation (errors, typos, or
       items that are not clear), please send them to me. I welcome any
       suggestions that will allow me to improve the documentation.

       None known.

       Date::Manip        - main module documentation

       This script is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the same terms as Perl itself.

       Sullivan Beck (

perl v5.20.0                      2014-09-14        Date::Manip::Problems(3pm)

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