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Date::Manip::Changes5tUserpContributed Perl DocumDate::Manip::Changes5to6(3pm)

       Date::Manip::Changes5to6 - describes differences between 5.xx and 6.00

       Date::Manip 6.00 represents a complete rethink and rewrite of
       Date::Manip.  A great deal of effort was made to make sure that 6.00 is
       almost backwards compatible with 5.xx whenever feasible, but some
       functionality has changed in backwards incompatible ways. Other parts
       have been deprecated and will be removed at some point in the future.

       This document describes the differences between the 5.xx series and
       version 6.00. This page primarily describes technical details, most of
       which do not impact how Date::Manip is used in scripts. If you want to
       make sure that a script which ran with 5.xx will run with 6.xx, refer
       to the Date::Manip::Migration5to6 document.

       The Date::Manip 5.xx series of suffered from several weaknesses. These

       Poor time zone support
           Time zone support in 5.xx was broken. Determining a time zone, and
           understanding daylight saving time changes was incomplete (at best)
           and totally inadequate to do true timezone operations.

       Parsing too complicated and unstructured
           The parsing routines had grown very complicated, and overly
           permissive over time and were in need of a complete overhaul.

       Lacking OO model
           Date::Manip 5.xx was written as a functional module, not an OO
           module, but date handling would lend itself very well to being OO
           with different classes to handle dates, deltas, and recurrences.

           The OO model allows a lot of information to be stored with each
           date (such as time zone information) which is discarded in the
           functional interface.

       Too monolithic
           The entire Date::Manip module was contained in one huge file.
           Breaking up the module would make it much easier to deal with.

       Date::Manip 6.00 is a complete rewrite of Date::Manip to address these
       and other issues.

       The following sections address how Date::Manip 6.00 differs from
       previous releases, and describes changes that might need to be made to
       your script in order to upgrade from 5.xx to 6.00.

       The most important changes are marked with asterisks.

       (*) Requires perl 5.10.0
           Please see the Date::Manip::Problems document for a discussion of
           this problem. It's in the KNOWN COMPLAINTS section.

       (*) Breaking into smaller modules
           Date::Manip module has been broken up from one huge module into a
           large number of smaller more manageable modules. The main
           Date::Manip module is still present, and contains all of the
           functions from Date::Manip 5.xx (except that they now call
           functions from all the other modules to do the actual work). In
           general, the Date::Manip module from 6.00 is backwards compatible.

           A number of new modules have been created as well. These can be
           used directly, bypassing the main Date::Manip module. These include
           the following:

           Date::Manip::Base contains many basic date operations which may be
           used to do simple date manipulation tasks without all the overhead
           of the full Date::Manip module.

           Date::Manip::TZ contains time zone operations.

           Handling dates, deltas, and recurrences are now done in
           Date::Manip::Date, Date::Manip::Delta, and Date::Manip::Recur.

           All of these modules are object oriented, and are designed to be
           used directly, so if you prefer an OO interface over a functional
           interface, use these modules.

       (*) Intermediate data cached
           In order to improve the performance of Date::Manip, many
           intermediate values are cached. This does impact the memory
           footprint of the module, but it has a huge impact on the
           performance of the module.

           Some types of data depend on the config variables used, and these
           are cached separately, and this cache is automatically cleared
           every time a config variable is set. As a result, it is best if you
           set all config variables at the start, and then leave them alone
           completely to get optimal use of cached data.

           A side effect of all this is that the Memoize module should not be
           used in conjunction with Date::Manip.

           In the version 5.xx documentation, it was mentioned that the
           Memoize module might be used to improve performance in some cases.
           This is no longer the case. It should not be used with Date::Manip,
           even if you use the functional interface instead of the OO

       Taint safe
           Date::Manip now contains no tainted data, and should run without
           problems with taint checking on provided you do not set additional
           methods for determining the system time zone using the
           curr_zone_methods function.

           Ideally, this should never be necessary. If it is necessary, I'd
           like to hear about it so that I can add whatever standard methods
           are needed to the built in list.

       (*) Complete handling of time zones
           The biggest problem with Date::Manip 5.xx was it's inability to
           correctly handle time zones and Daylight Saving Time. That is now
           fixed. Version 6.00 includes support for every time zone included
           in the zoneinfo (aka Olson) database which includes the definitions
           of (hopefully) all of the time zones used in the world.

       Individual time zones will no longer be added
           Prior to 5.55, time zones were added upon request. Since 6.00 now
           supports a full set of standard time zones, I will no longer add in
           individual time zones (Date::Manip::TZ includes functionality for
           adding them yourself if they are needed).  With Date::Manip now
           having full time zone support, I'm not interested in supporting my
           own time zone database.

           However, I am interested in adding sets of time zones from various

           Date::Manip 6.00 includes time zones from the following standards:

              Olson zoneinfo database
              all Microsoft Windows time zones
              zones listed in RFC-822

           If there are additional standards that include additional time
           zones not included here, please point me to them so they can be
           added.  This could include published lists of time zone names
           supported on some operating system which have different names than
           the zoneinfo list.

       Nonstandard time zone abbreviations removed
           Some of the individual standards that were added in the 5.xx series
           are not included in any of the standards listed above.

           As of 6.00, only time zones from standards will be included in the
           distribution (others can be added by users using the functions
           described in Date::Manip::TZ to add aliases for existing time

           The following time zones were in Date::Manip 5.xx but not in 6.00.

              IDLW    -1200    International Date Line West
              NT      -1100    Nome
              SAT     -0400    Chile
              CLDT    -0300    Chile Daylight
              AT      -0200    Azores
              MEWT    +0100    Middle European Winter
              MEZ     +0100    Middle European
              FWT     +0100    French Winter
              GB      +0100    GMT with daylight saving
              SWT     +0100    Swedish Winter
              MESZ    +0200    Middle European Summer
              FST     +0200    French Summer
              METDST  +0200    An alias for MEST used by HP-UX
              EETDST  +0300    An alias for eest used by HP-UX
              EETEDT  +0300    Eastern Europe, USSR Zone 1
              BT      +0300    Baghdad, USSR Zone 2
              IT      +0330    Iran
              ZP4     +0400    USSR Zone 3
              ZP5     +0500    USSR Zone 4
              IST     +0530    Indian Standard
              ZP6     +0600    USSR Zone 5
              AWST    +0800    Australian Western Standard
              ROK     +0900    Republic of Korea
              AEST    +1000    Australian Eastern Standard
              ACDT    +1030    Australian Central Daylight
              CADT    +1030    Central Australian Daylight
              AEDT    +1100    Australian Eastern Daylight
              EADT    +1100    Eastern Australian Daylight
              NZT     +1200    New Zealand
              IDLE    +1200    International Date Line East

       A lot of support modules and files
           Date::Manip now includes a large number of files and modules that
           are used to support time zones.

           A series of modules are included which are auto-generated from the
           zoneinfo database.  The Date::Manip::Zones, Date::Manip::TZ::*, and
           Date::Manip::Offset::* modules are all automatically generated and
           are not intended to be used directly. Instead, the Date::Manip::TZ
           module is used to access the data stored there.

           A separate time zone module (Date::Manip::TZ::*) is included for
           every single time zone. There is also a module
           (Date::Manip::Offset::*) for every different offset. All told,
           there are almost 1000 modules.  These are included to make time
           zone handling more efficient. Rather than calculating everything on
           the fly, information about each time zone and offset are included
           here which greatly speeds up the handling of time zones. These
           modules are only loaded as needed (i.e. only the modules related to
           the specific time zones you refer to are ever loaded), so there is
           no performance penalty to having them.

           Also included in the distribution are a script (tzdata) and
           additional module (Date::Manip::TZdata). These are used to
           automatically generate the time zone modules, and are of no use to
           anyone other than the maintainer of Date::Manip. They are included
           solely for the sake of completeness. If someone wanted to fork
           Date::Manip, all the tools necessary to do so are included in the

       (*) Meaning of $::TZ and $ENV{TZ}
           In Date::Manip 5.x, you could specify what time zone you wanted to
           work in using either the $::TZ or $ENV{TZ} variables.

           Date::Manip 6.00 makes use of two different time zones: the actual
           local time zone the computer is running in (and which is used by
           the system clock), and a time zone that you want to work in.
           Typically, these are the same, but they do not have to be.

           As of Date::Manip 6.00, the $::TZ and $ENV{TZ} variables are used
           only to specify the actual local time zone.

           In order to specify an alternate time zone to work in, use the
           SetDate or ForceDate config variables.

       (*) Date_Init handling of config variables
           The handling of config variables has changed slightly.

           Previously, variables passed in to Date_Init overrode values from
           config files. This has changed slightly. Options to Date_Init are
           now parsed in the order they are listed, so the following:


           would first set the DateFormat variable, and then it would read the
           config file "DateManip.cnf". If that config file included a
           DateFormat definition, it would override the one passed in to

           The proper way to override config files is to pass the config files
           in first, followed by any script-specific overrides. In other


       Date_Init doesn't return the config variables
           In Date::Manip::5.xx, Date_Init could return the list of all config
           variables. This functionality is no longer supported.  Date_Init is
           used strictly to set config variables.

       (*) Config file options
           Date::Manip 5.xx had the concept of a global and personal config
           file. In addition, the personal config file could be looked for in
           a path of directories. All this was specified using the config


           All of these have been removed. Instead, the single config


           will be used to specify config files (with no distinction between a
           global and personal config file). Also, no path searching is done.
           Each must be specified by a complete path. Finally, any number of
           config files can be used. So the following is valid:


       Other config variables removed
           The following config variables have been removed.

              TodayIsMidnight  Use DefaultTime instead.

              ConvTZ           Use SetDate or ForceDate instead.

              Internal         Use Printable instead.

              DeltaSigns       Use the Date::Manip::Delta::printf
                               method to print deltas

              UpdateCurrTZ     With real time zone handling in
                               place, this is no longer necessary

              IntCharSet      This has been replaced with better support for
                              international character sets. The Encoding config
                              variable may be used instead.

       Other config variables deprecated
           The following config variables are deprecated and will be removed
           in some future version:

              TZ              Use SetDate or ForceDate instead.

           Previously, holidays could be defined as a "Date + Delta" or "Date
           - Delta" string. These predate recurrences, and introduce some
           complexity into the handling of holidays. Since recurrences are a
           much better way to define holidays, the "Date + Delta" and "Date -
           Delta" strings are no longer supported.

       TZ replaced (and enhanced)
           The SetDate and ForceDate variables (which include the
           functionality of the deprecated TZ variable) are much improved as
           described in the Date::Manip::Config documentation.

           Since it is now handles time change correctly (allowing time
           changes to occur in the alternate time zone), parsed results may be
           different than in 5.x (but since 5.x didn't have proper time zone
           handling, this is a good thing).

       (*) today, tomorrow, yesterday
           The words "today", "tomorrow", and "yesterday" in 5.xx referred to
           the time now, 24 hours in the future, and 24 hours in the past

           As of 6.00, these are treated strictly as date strings, so they are
           the current day, the day before, or the day after at the time

           The string "now" still refers to the current date and time.

       ISO 8601 formats
           A couple of the date formats from Date::Manip 5.xx conflicted with
           ISO 8601 formats in the spec. These are documented in the
           Date::Manip::Date documentation.

           Dates are now parsed according to the spec (though a couple
           extensions have been made, which are also documented in the
           Date::Manip::Date documentation).

           There is one change with respect to Date::Manip 5.xx that results
           from a possible misinterpretation of the standard. In Date::Manip,
           there is a small amount of ambiguity in how the Www-D date formats
           are understood.

           The date:


           might be interpreted in two different ways. It could be interpreted
           as Wednesday (day 3) of the 2nd week of 1996, or as the 3rd day of
           the 2nd week of 1996 (which would be Tuesday if the week begins on
           Sunday). Since the specification only works with weeks which begin
           on day 1, the two are always equivalent in the specification, and
           the language of the specification doesn't clearly indicate one
           interpretation over the other.

           Since Date::Manip supports the concept of weeks starting on days
           other than day 1 (Monday), the two interpretations are not

           In Date::Manip 5.xx, the date was interpreted as Wednesday of the
           2nd week, but I now believe that the other interpretation (3rd day
           of the week) is the interpretation intended by the specification.
           In addition, if this interpretation is used, it is easy to get the
           other interpretation.

           If 1996-w02-3 means the 3rd day of the 2nd week, then to get
           Wednesday (day 3) of the week, use the following two
           Date::Manip::Date methods:

              $err   = $date->parse("1996-w02-1");
              $date2 = $date->next(3,1);

           The first call gets the 1st day of the 2nd week, and the second
           call gets the next Wednesday.

           If 1996-w02-3 is interpreted as Wednesday of the 2nd week, then to
           get the 3rd day of the week involves significantly more work.

           In Date::Manip 6.00, the date will now be parsed as the 3rd day of
           the 2nd week.

       (*) Parsing is now more rigid
           The philosophy in Date::Manip 5.xx with respect to parsing dates
           was "if there's any conceivable way to find a valid date in the
           string, do so". As a result, strings which did not look like they
           could contain a valid date often would.

           This manifested itself it two ways. First, a lot of punctuation was
           ignored. For example, the string "01 // 03 -. 75" was the date

           Second, a lot of word breaks were optional and it was often
           acceptable to run strings together. For example, the delta
           "in5seconds" would have worked.

           With Date::Manip 6.00, parsing now tries to find a valid date in
           the string, but uses a more rigidly defined set of allowed formats
           which should more closely match how the dates would actually be
           expressed in real life.  The punctuation allowed is more rigidly
           defined, and word breaks are required. So "01/03/75" will work, but
           "01//03/75" and "01/03-75" won't. Also, "in5seconds" will no longer
           work, though "in 5 seconds" will work.

           These changes serve to simplify some of the regular expressions
           used in parsing dates, as well as simplifying the parsing routines.
           They also help to recognize actually dates as opposed to typos...
           it was too easy to pass in garbage and get a date out.

       Support dropped for a few formats
           I've dropped support for a few very uncommon (probably never used)
           formats. These include (with Jan 3, 2009 as an example):

              DD/YYmmm      03/09Jan
              DD/YYYYmmm    03/2009Jan
              mmmYYYY/DD    Jan2009/03
              YYYY/DDmmm    2009/03Jan

              mmmYYYY       Jan2009
              YYYYmmm       2009Jan

           The last two are no longer supported since they are incomplete.

           With the exception of the incomplete forms, these could be added
           back in with very little effort. If there is ever a request to do
           so, I probably will.

       No longer parses the Apache format
           Date::Manip 5.xx supported the format:


           used in the apache logs. Due to the stricter parsing, this format
           is no longer supported directly. However, the parse_format method
           may be used to parse the date directly from an apache log line with
           no need to extract the date string beforehand.

       Date_PrevWorkDay behavior
           The behavior of Date_PrevWorkDay has changed slightly.

           The starting date is checked. If $timecheck was non-zero, the check
           failed if the date was not a business date, or if the time was not
           during business hours. If $timecheck was zero, the check failed if
           the date was not a business date, but the time was ignored.

           In 5.xx, if the check failed, and $timecheck was non-zero, day 0
           was defined as the start of the next business day, but if
           $timecheck was zero, day 0 was defined as the previous business day
           at the same time.

           In 6.xx, if the check fails, and $timecheck is non-zero, the
           behavior is the same as before. If $timecheck is zero, day 0 is
           defined as the next business day at the same time.

           So day 0 is now always the same, where before, day 0 meant two
           different things depending on whether $timecheck was zero or not.

       (*) Default time
           In Date::Manip 5.xx, the default times for dates was handled in an
           inconsistent manner.  In the Date::Manip::Date documentation, if
           you parse a date from the "Common date formats" section, in
           Date::Manip 5.xx, if no time was included, it defaulted to
           "00:00:00". If you parsed a date from the "Less common formats"
           section, the default time was the current time.

           So running a program on Jun 5, 2009 at noon that parsed the
           following dates gave the following return values:

              Jun 12     =>  Jun 12, 2009 at 00:00:00
              next week  =>  Jun 12, 2009 at 12:00:00

           This behavior is changed and now relies on the config variable
           DefaultTime.  If DefaultTime is "curr", the default time for any
           date which includes no information about the time is the current
           time. Otherwise, the default time is midnight.

       %z format
           In Date::Manip 5.xx, the %z format would give an offset in the
           form: -0500.  Now it gives it in the form: -05:00:00

       Dropped mixed style delta parsing
           In Date::Manip 5.xx, a parsed delta could be written in the delta


           or in a language-specific expanded form:

              1 hour 2 minutes 3 seconds

           or in a mixed form:

              1 hour 2:3

           The mixed form has been dropped since I doubt that it sees much use
           in real life, and by dropping the mixed form, the parsing is much

       Approximate date/date calculations
           In Date::Manip 5.xx, the approximate delta between the two dates:

              Jan 10 1996 noon
              Jan  7 1998 noon

           was +1:11:4:0:0:0:0 (or 1 year, 11 months, 4 weeks).  As of
           Date::Manip 6.00, the delta is +2:0:-0:3:0:0:0 (or 2 years minus 3
           days). Although this leads to mixed-sign deltas, it is actually how
           more people would think about the delta. It has the additional
           advantage of being MUCH easier and faster to calculate.

       Approximate relationships in deltas
           When printing parts of deltas in Date::Manip::5.xx, the approximate
           relationship of 1 year = 365.25 days was used. This is the correct
           value for the Julian calendar, but for the Gregorian calendar, a
           better value is 365.2425, and this is used in version 6.00.

       Old style formats
           The formats used in the printf command are slightly different than
           in the old Delta_Format command.

           The old formats are described in the Date::Manip::DM5 manual, and
           the new ones are in the Date::Manip::Delta manual.

           The new formats are much more flexible and I encourage you to
           switch over, however at this point, the old style formats are
           officially supported for the Delta_Format command.

           At some point, the old style formats may be deprecated (and removed
           at some point beyond that), but for now, they are not.

           The old formats are NOT available using the printf method.

       The day field meaning changed in a few recurrences
           The value of the day field can refer to several different things
           including the day of week number (Monday=1 to Sunday=7), day of
           month (1-31), day of year (1-366), etc.

           In Date::Manip 5.xx, it could also refer to the nth day of the week
           (i.e. 1 being the 1st day of the week, -1 being the last day of the
           week).  This meaning is no longer used in 6.xx.

           For example, the recurrence:


           referred to the 3rd occurence of the 4th day of the week in

           The meaning has been changed to refer to the 3rd occurence of day 4
           (Thursday) in February. This is a much more useful type of

           As a result of this change, the related recurrence:


           is invalid. Negative numbers may be used to refer to the nth day of
           the week, but NOT when referring to the day of week numbers.

       Recurrence range now inclusive
           Previously, the list of dates implied by the recurrence were on or
           after the start date, but before the end date.

           This has been changed so that the dates may be on or before the end

       Dropped support for a couple English recurrences
           Date::Manip 5.xx claimed support for a recurrence:

              every 2nd day in June [1997]

           In actuality, this recurrence is not practical to calculate. It
           requires a base date which might imply June 1,3,5,... in 1997 but
           June 2,4,6 in 1998.

           In addition, the recurrence does not fit the mold for other
           recurrences that are an approximate distance apart. This type of
           recurrence has a number of closely spaced events with 11-month gaps
           between groups.

           I no longer consider this a valid recurrence and support is now
           dropped for this string.

           I also dropped the following for a similar reason:

              every 6th tuesday [in 1999]

       Other minor recurrence changes
           Previously, ParseRecur would supply default dates if the start or
           end were missing. This is no longer done.

       The Date::Manip module contains the same functions that Date::Manip
       5.xx had (though the OO modules do all the work now). In general, the
       routines behave the same as before with the following exceptions:

           Previously, Date_ConvTZ took 1 to 4 arguments and used the local
           time zone and the ConvTZ config variable to fill in missing

           Now, the Date_ConvTZ function only supports a 3 argument call:

              $date = Date_ConvTZ($date,$from,$to);

           If $from is not given, it defaults to the local time zone. If $to
           is not given, it defaults to the local time zone.

           The optional 4th argument ($errlevel) is no longer supported. If
           there is an error, an empty string is returned.

           In Date::Manip 5.xx, it was recommended that you pass arguments to
           ParseDate or ParseDateDelta. This is not recommended with 6.00
           since it is much more intelligent about handling the arguments, and
           you'll just end up parsing the date/delta twice.

       Please refer to the Date::Manip::Problems documentation for information
       on submitting bug reports or questions to the author.

       Date::Manip        - main module documentation

       This script is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the same terms as Perl itself.

       Sullivan Beck (

perl v5.20.0                      2014-09-14     Date::Manip::Changes5to6(3pm)

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