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DBD::mysql(3pm)       User Contributed Perl Documentation      DBD::mysql(3pm)

       DBD::mysql - MySQL driver for the Perl5 Database Interface (DBI)

           use DBI;

           $dsn = "DBI:mysql:database=$database;host=$hostname;port=$port";

           $dbh = DBI->connect($dsn, $user, $password);

           $drh = DBI->install_driver("mysql");
           @databases = DBI->data_sources("mysql");
           @databases = DBI->data_sources("mysql",
             {"host" => $host, "port" => $port, "user" => $user, password => $pass});

           $sth = $dbh->prepare("SELECT * FROM foo WHERE bla");
           $sth = $dbh->prepare("LISTFIELDS $table");
           $sth = $dbh->prepare("LISTINDEX $table $index");
           $numRows = $sth->rows;
           $numFields = $sth->{'NUM_OF_FIELDS'};

           $rc = $drh->func('createdb', $database, $host, $user, $password, 'admin');
           $rc = $drh->func('dropdb', $database, $host, $user, $password, 'admin');
           $rc = $drh->func('shutdown', $host, $user, $password, 'admin');
           $rc = $drh->func('reload', $host, $user, $password, 'admin');

           $rc = $dbh->func('createdb', $database, 'admin');
           $rc = $dbh->func('dropdb', $database, 'admin');
           $rc = $dbh->func('shutdown', 'admin');
           $rc = $dbh->func('reload', 'admin');


         use strict;
         use DBI();

         # Connect to the database.
         my $dbh = DBI->connect("DBI:mysql:database=test;host=localhost",
                                "joe", "joe's password",
                                {'RaiseError' => 1});

         # Drop table 'foo'. This may fail, if 'foo' doesn't exist.
         # Thus we put an eval around it.
         eval { $dbh->do("DROP TABLE foo") };
         print "Dropping foo failed: $@\n" if $@;

         # Create a new table 'foo'. This must not fail, thus we don't
         # catch errors.
         $dbh->do("CREATE TABLE foo (id INTEGER, name VARCHAR(20))");

         # INSERT some data into 'foo'. We are using $dbh->quote() for
         # quoting the name.
         $dbh->do("INSERT INTO foo VALUES (1, " . $dbh->quote("Tim") . ")");

         # Same thing, but using placeholders
         $dbh->do("INSERT INTO foo VALUES (?, ?)", undef, 2, "Jochen");

         # Now retrieve data from the table.
         my $sth = $dbh->prepare("SELECT * FROM foo");
         while (my $ref = $sth->fetchrow_hashref()) {
           print "Found a row: id = $ref->{'id'}, name = $ref->{'name'}\n";

         # Disconnect from the database.

       DBD::mysql is the Perl5 Database Interface driver for the MySQL
       database. In other words: DBD::mysql is an interface between the Perl
       programming language and the MySQL programming API that comes with the
       MySQL relational database management system. Most functions provided by
       this programming API are supported. Some rarely used functions are
       missing, mainly because no-one ever requested them. :-)

       In what follows we first discuss the use of DBD::mysql, because this is
       what you will need the most. For installation, see the sections on
       INSTALLATION, and "WIN32 INSTALLATION" below. See EXAMPLE for a simple
       example above.

       From perl you activate the interface with the statement

           use DBI;

       After that you can connect to multiple MySQL database servers and send
       multiple queries to any of them via a simple object oriented interface.
       Two types of objects are available: database handles and statement
       handles. Perl returns a database handle to the connect method like so:

         $dbh = DBI->connect("DBI:mysql:database=$db;host=$host",
                             $user, $password, {RaiseError => 1});

       Once you have connected to a database, you can execute SQL statements

         my $query = sprintf("INSERT INTO foo VALUES (%d, %s)",
                             $number, $dbh->quote("name"));

       See DBI for details on the quote and do methods. An alternative
       approach is

         $dbh->do("INSERT INTO foo VALUES (?, ?)", undef,
                  $number, $name);

       in which case the quote method is executed automatically. See also the
       bind_param method in DBI. See "DATABASE HANDLES" below for more details
       on database handles.

       If you want to retrieve results, you need to create a so-called
       statement handle with:

         $sth = $dbh->prepare("SELECT * FROM $table");

       This statement handle can be used for multiple things. First of all you
       can retrieve a row of data:

         my $row = $sth->fetchrow_hashref();

       If your table has columns ID and NAME, then $row will be hash ref with
       keys ID and NAME. See "STATEMENT HANDLES" below for more details on
       statement handles.

       But now for a more formal approach:

   Class Methods
               use DBI;

               $dsn = "DBI:mysql:$database";
               $dsn = "DBI:mysql:database=$database;host=$hostname";
               $dsn = "DBI:mysql:database=$database;host=$hostname;port=$port";

               $dbh = DBI->connect($dsn, $user, $password);

           A "database" must always be specified.

               The hostname, if not specified or specified as '' or
               'localhost', will default to a MySQL server running on the
               local machine using the default for the UNIX socket. To connect
               to a MySQL server on the local machine via TCP, you must
               specify the loopback IP address ( as the host.

               Should the MySQL server be running on a non-standard port
               number, you may explicitly state the port number to connect to
               in the "hostname" argument, by concatenating the hostname and
               port number together separated by a colon ( ":" ) character or
               by using the  "port" argument.

               To connect to a MySQL server on localhost using TCP/IP, you
               must specify the hostname as (with the optional

               Enables (TRUE value) or disables (FALSE value) the flag
               CLIENT_FOUND_ROWS while connecting to the MySQL server. This
               has a somewhat funny effect: Without mysql_client_found_rows,
               if you perform a query like

                 UPDATE $table SET id = 1 WHERE id = 1

               then the MySQL engine will always return 0, because no rows
               have changed.  With mysql_client_found_rows however, it will
               return the number of rows that have an id 1, as some people are
               expecting. (At least for compatibility to other engines.)

               As of MySQL 3.22.3, a new feature is supported: If your DSN
               contains the option "mysql_compression=1", then the
               communication between client and server will be compressed.

               If your DSN contains the option "mysql_connect_timeout=##", the
               connect request to the server will timeout if it has not been
               successful after the given number of seconds.

               If your DSN contains the option "mysql_write_timeout=##", the
               write operation to the server will timeout if it has not been
               successful after the given number of seconds.

               If your DSN contains the option "mysql_read_timeout=##", the
               read operation to the server will timeout if it has not been
               successful after the given number of seconds.

               If your DSN contains the option "mysql_init_command=##", then
               this SQL statement is executed when connecting to the MySQL
               server.  It is automatically re-executed if reconnection

               This option is for older mysql databases that don't have secure
               auth set

               These options can be used to read a config file like
               /etc/my.cnf or ~/.my.cnf. By default MySQL's C client library
               doesn't use any config files unlike the client programs (mysql,
               mysqladmin, ...) that do, but outside of the C client library.
               Thus you need to explicitly request reading a config file, as

                   $dsn = "DBI:mysql:test;mysql_read_default_file=/home/joe/my.cnf";
                   $dbh = DBI->connect($dsn, $user, $password)

               The option mysql_read_default_group can be used to specify the
               default group in the config file: Usually this is the client
               group, but see the following example:



               (Note the order of the entries! The example won't work, if you
               reverse the [client] and [perl] sections!)

               If you read this config file, then you'll be typically
               connected to localhost. However, by using

                   $dsn = "DBI:mysql:test;mysql_read_default_group=perl;"
                       . "mysql_read_default_file=/home/joe/my.cnf";
                   $dbh = DBI->connect($dsn, $user, $password);

               you'll be connected to perlhost. Note that if you specify a
               default group and do not specify a file, then the default
               config files will all be read.  See the documentation of the C
               function mysql_options() for details.

               As of MySQL 3.21.15, it is possible to choose the Unix socket
               that is used for connecting to the server. This is done, for
               example, with


               Usually there's no need for this option, unless you are using
               another location for the socket than that built into the

               A true value turns on the CLIENT_SSL flag when connecting to
               the MySQL database:


               This means that your communication with the server will be

               If you turn mysql_ssl on, you might also wish to use the
               following flags:

               These are used to specify the respective parameters of a call
               to mysql_ssl_set, if mysql_ssl is turned on.

               As of MySQL 3.23.49, the LOCAL capability for LOAD DATA may be
               disabled in the MySQL client library by default. If your DSN
               contains the option "mysql_local_infile=1", LOAD DATA LOCAL
               will be enabled.  (However, this option is *ineffective* if the
               server has also been configured to disallow LOCAL.)

               As of MySQL 4.1, support for multiple statements separated by a
               semicolon (;) may be enabled by using this option. Enabling
               this option may cause problems if server-side prepared
               statements are also enabled.

           Prepared statement support (server side prepare)
               As of 3.0002_1, server side prepare statements were on by
               default (if your server was >= 4.1.3). As of 3.0009, they were
               off by default again due to issues with the prepared statement
               API (all other mysql connectors are set this way until C API
               issues are resolved). The requirement to use prepared
               statements still remains that you have a server >= 4.1.3

               To use server side prepared statements, all you need to do is
               set the variable mysql_server_prepare in the connect:

               $dbh = DBI->connect(
                                   { RaiseError => 1, AutoCommit => 1 }

               * Note: delimiter for this param is ';'

               There are many benefits to using server side prepare
               statements, mostly if you are performing many inserts because
               of that fact that a single statement is prepared to accept
               multiple insert values.

               To make sure that the 'make test' step tests whether server
               prepare works, you just need to export the env variable

               export MYSQL_SERVER_PREPARE=1

               The option <mysql_embedded_options> can be used to pass
               'command-line' options to embedded server.


               use DBI;
               $dbh = DBI->connect($testdsn,"a","b");

               This would cause the command line help to the embedded MySQL
               server library to be printed.

               The option <mysql_embedded_groups> can be used to specify the
               groups in the config file(my.cnf) which will be used to get
               options for embedded server.  If not specified [server] and
               [embedded] groups will be used.



   Private MetaData Methods
               my $drh = DBI->install_driver("mysql");
               @dbs = $drh->func("$hostname:$port", '_ListDBs');
               @dbs = $drh->func($hostname, $port, '_ListDBs');
               @dbs = $dbh->func('_ListDBs');

           Returns a list of all databases managed by the MySQL server running
           on $hostname, port $port. This is a legacy method.  Instead, you
           should use the portable method

               @dbs = DBI->data_sources("mysql");

   Server Administration
               $rc = $drh->func("createdb", $dbname, [host, user, password,], 'admin');
               $rc = $drh->func("dropdb", $dbname, [host, user, password,], 'admin');
               $rc = $drh->func("shutdown", [host, user, password,], 'admin');
               $rc = $drh->func("reload", [host, user, password,], 'admin');


               $rc = $dbh->func("createdb", $dbname, 'admin');
               $rc = $dbh->func("dropdb", $dbname, 'admin');
               $rc = $dbh->func("shutdown", 'admin');
               $rc = $dbh->func("reload", 'admin');

           For server administration you need a server connection. For
           obtaining this connection you have two options: Either use a driver
           handle (drh) and supply the appropriate arguments (host, defaults
           localhost, user, defaults to '' and password, defaults to ''). A
           driver handle can be obtained with

               $drh = DBI->install_driver('mysql');

           Otherwise reuse the existing connection of a database handle (dbh).

           There's only one function available for administrative purposes,
           comparable to the mysqladmin programs. The command being execute
           depends on the first argument:

               Creates the database $dbname. Equivalent to "mysqladmin create

               Drops the database $dbname. Equivalent to "mysqladmin drop

               It should be noted that database deletion is not prompted for
               in any way.  Nor is it undo-able from DBI.

                   Once you issue the dropDB() method, the database will be gone!

               These method should be used at your own risk.

               Silently shuts down the database engine. (Without prompting!)
               Equivalent to "mysqladmin shutdown".

               Reloads the servers configuration files and/or tables. This can
               be particularly important if you modify access privileges or
               create new users.

       The DBD::mysql driver supports the following attributes of database
       handles (read only):

         $errno = $dbh->{'mysql_errno'};
         $error = $dbh->{'mysql_error'};
         $info = $dbh->{'mysql_hostinfo'};
         $info = $dbh->{'mysql_info'};
         $insertid = $dbh->{'mysql_insertid'};
         $info = $dbh->{'mysql_protoinfo'};
         $info = $dbh->{'mysql_serverinfo'};
         $info = $dbh->{'mysql_stat'};
         $threadId = $dbh->{'mysql_thread_id'};

       These correspond to mysql_errno(), mysql_error(),
       mysql_get_host_info(), mysql_info(), mysql_insert_id(),
       mysql_get_proto_info(), mysql_get_server_info(), mysql_stat() and
       mysql_thread_id(), respectively.

        $info_hashref = $dhb->{mysql_dbd_stats}

       DBD::mysql keeps track of some statistics in the mysql_dbd_stats
       attribute.  The following stats are being maintained:

           The number of times that DBD::mysql successfully reconnected to the
           mysql server.

           The number of times that DBD::mysql tried to reconnect to mysql but

       The DBD::mysql driver also supports the following attribute(s) of
       database handles (read/write):

        $bool_value = $dbh->{mysql_auto_reconnect};
        $dbh->{mysql_auto_reconnect} = $AutoReconnect ? 1 : 0;

           This attribute determines whether DBD::mysql will automatically
           reconnect to mysql if the connection be lost. This feature defaults
           to off; however, if either the GATEWAY_INTERFACE or MOD_PERL
           environment variable is set, DBD::mysql will turn
           mysql_auto_reconnect on.  Setting mysql_auto_reconnect to on is not
           advised if 'lock tables' is used because if DBD::mysql reconnect to
           mysql all table locks will be lost.  This attribute is ignored when
           AutoCommit is turned off, and when AutoCommit is turned off,
           DBD::mysql will not automatically reconnect to the server.

           It is also possible to set the default value of the
           "mysql_auto_reconnect" attribute for the $dbh by passing it in the
           "\%attr" hash for "DBI-"connect>.

           Note that if you are using a module or framework that performs
           reconnections for you (for example DBIx::Connector in fixup mode),
           this value must be set to 0.

           This attribute forces the driver to use mysql_use_result rather
           than mysql_store_result. The former is faster and less memory
           consuming, but tends to block other processes. mysql_store_result
           is the default due to that fact storing the result is expected
           behavior with most applications.

           It is possible to set the default value of the "mysql_use_result"
           attribute for the $dbh using several ways:

            - through DSN

              $dbh= DBI->connect("DBI:mysql:test;mysql_use_result=1", "root", "");

            - after creation of database handle

              $dbh->{'mysql_use_result'}=0; #disable
              $dbh->{'mysql_use_result'}=1; #enable

           It is possible to set/unset the "mysql_use_result" attribute after
           creation of the statement handle. See below.

           This attribute determines whether DBD::mysql should assume strings
           stored in the database are utf8.  This feature defaults to off.

           When set, a data retrieved from a textual column type (char,
           varchar, etc) will have the UTF-8 flag turned on if necessary.
           This enables character semantics on that string.  You will also
           need to ensure that your database / table / column is configured to
           use UTF8.  See Chapter 10 of the mysql manual for details.

           Additionally, turning on this flag tells MySQL that incoming data
           should be treated as UTF-8.  This will only take effect if used as
           part of the call to connect().  If you turn the flag on after
           connecting, you will need to issue the command "SET NAMES utf8" to
           get the same effect.

           This option is experimental and may change in future versions.

           This attribute causes the driver (emulated prepare statements) to
           attempt to guess if a value being bound is a numeric value, and if
           so, doesn't quote the value.  This was created by Dragonchild and
           is one way to deal with the performance issue of using quotes in a
           statement that is inserting or updating a large numeric value. This
           was previously called "unsafe_bind_type_guessing" because it is
           experimental. I have successfully run the full test suite with this
           option turned on, the name can now be simply

           CAVEAT: Even though you can insert an integer value into a
           character column, if this column is indexed, if you query that
           column with the integer value not being quoted, it will not use the

           MariaDB [test]> explain select * from test where value0 = '3' \G
           *************************** 1. row ***************************
                      id: 1
             select_type: SIMPLE
                   table: test
                    type: ref possible_keys: value0
                     key: value0
                 key_len: 13
                     ref: const
                    rows: 1
                   Extra: Using index condition 1 row in set (0.00 sec)

           MariaDB [test]> explain select * from test where value0 = 3
               -> \G *************************** 1. row
                      id: 1
             select_type: SIMPLE
                   table: test
                    type: ALL possible_keys: value0
                     key: NULL
                 key_len: NULL
                     ref: NULL
                    rows: 6
                   Extra: Using where 1 row in set (0.00 sec)

           See bug:

           "mysql_bind_type_guessing" can be turned on via

            - through DSN

             my $dbh= DBI->connect('DBI:mysql:test', 'username', 'pass',
             { mysql_bind_type_guessing => 1})

             - OR after handle creation

             $dbh->{mysql_bind_type_guessing} = 1;

           This attribute causes the driver (emulated prepare statements) will
           cause any placeholders in comments to be bound. This is not correct
           prepared statement behavior, but some developers have come to
           depend on this behavior, so I have made it available in 4.015

           This attribute causes the driver to not issue 'set autocommit'
           either through explicit or using mysql_autocommit(). This is
           particularly useful in the case of using MySQL Proxy.

           See the bug report:


           "mysql_no_autocommit_cmd" can be turned on via

            - through DSN

             my $dbh= DBI->connect('DBI:mysql:test', 'username', 'pass',
             { mysql_no_autocommit_cmd => 1})

             - OR after handle creation

             $dbh->{mysql_no_autocommit_cmd} = 1;

       The statement handles of DBD::mysql support a number of attributes. You
       access these by using, for example,

         my $numFields = $sth->{'NUM_OF_FIELDS'};

       Note, that most attributes are valid only after a successful execute.
       An "undef" value will returned in that case. The most important
       exception is the "mysql_use_result" attribute: This forces the driver
       to use mysql_use_result rather than mysql_store_result. The former is
       faster and less memory consuming, but tends to block other processes.
       (That's why mysql_store_result is the default.)

       To set the "mysql_use_result" attribute, use either of the following:

         my $sth = $dbh->prepare("QUERY", { "mysql_use_result" => 1});


         my $sth = $dbh->prepare("QUERY");
         $sth->{"mysql_use_result"} = 1;

       Column dependent attributes, for example NAME, the column names, are
       returned as a reference to an array. The array indices are
       corresponding to the indices of the arrays returned by fetchrow and
       similar methods. For example the following code will print a header of
       table names together with all rows:

         my $sth = $dbh->prepare("SELECT * FROM $table");
         if (!$sth) {
             die "Error:" . $dbh->errstr . "\n";
         if (!$sth->execute) {
             die "Error:" . $sth->errstr . "\n";
         my $names = $sth->{'NAME'};
         my $numFields = $sth->{'NUM_OF_FIELDS'} - 1;
         for my $i ( 0..$numFields ) {
             printf("%s%s", $i ? "," : "", $$names[$i]);
         print "\n";
         while (my $ref = $sth->fetchrow_arrayref) {
             for my $i ( 0..$numFields ) {
                 printf("%s%s", $i ? "," : "", $$ref[$i]);
             print "\n";

       For portable applications you should restrict yourself to attributes
       with capitalized or mixed case names. Lower case attribute names are
       private to DBD::mysql. The attribute list includes:

           this attribute determines whether a fetchrow will chop preceding
           and trailing blanks off the column values. Chopping blanks does not
           have impact on the max_length attribute.

           MySQL has the ability to choose unique key values automatically. If
           this happened, the new ID will be stored in this attribute. An
           alternative way for accessing this attribute is via
           $dbh->{'mysql_insertid'}.  (Note we are using the $dbh in this

           Reference to an array of boolean values; TRUE indicates, that the
           respective column is a blob. This attribute is valid for MySQL

           Reference to an array of boolean values; TRUE indicates, that the
           respective column is a key. This is valid for MySQL only.

           Reference to an array of boolean values; TRUE indicates, that the
           respective column contains numeric values.

           Reference to an array of boolean values; TRUE indicates, that the
           respective column is a primary key.

           Reference to an array of boolean values; TRUE indicates that the
           respective column is an AUTO_INCREMENT column.  This is only valid
           for MySQL.

           A reference to an array of maximum column sizes. The max_length is
           the maximum physically present in the result table, length gives
           the theoretically possible maximum. max_length is valid for MySQL

           List information of the MySQL client library that DBD::mysql was
           built against:

           print "$dbh->{mysql_clientinfo}\n";


           print "$dbh->{mysql_clientversion}\n";


           print "$dbh->{mysql_serverversion}\n";


           A reference to an array of column names.

           A reference to an array of boolean values; TRUE indicates that this
           column may contain NULL's.

           Number of fields returned by a SELECT or LISTFIELDS statement.  You
           may use this for checking whether a statement returned a result: A
           zero value indicates a non-SELECT statement like INSERT, DELETE or

           A reference to an array of table names, useful in a JOIN result.

           A reference to an array of column types. The engine's native column
           types are mapped to portable types like DBI::SQL_INTEGER() or
           DBI::SQL_VARCHAR(), as good as possible. Not all native types have
           a meaningful equivalent, for example
           DBD::mysql::FIELD_TYPE_INTERVAL is mapped to DBI::SQL_VARCHAR().
           If you need the native column types, use mysql_type. See below.

           A reference to an array of MySQL's native column types, for example
           DBD::mysql::FIELD_TYPE_SHORT() or DBD::mysql::FIELD_TYPE_STRING().
           Use the TYPE attribute, if you want portable types like

           Similar to mysql, but type names and not numbers are returned.
           Whenever possible, the ANSI SQL name is preferred.

           The number of warnings generated during execution of the SQL
           statement.  This attribute is available on both statement handles
           and database handles.

       Beginning with DBD::mysql 2.0416, transactions are supported.  The
       transaction support works as follows:

       o   By default AutoCommit mode is on, following the DBI specifications.

       o   If you execute

               $dbh->{'AutoCommit'} = 0;


               $dbh->{'AutoCommit'} = 1;

           then the driver will set the MySQL server variable autocommit to 0
           or 1, respectively. Switching from 0 to 1 will also issue a COMMIT,
           following the DBI specifications.

       o   The methods


           will issue the commands COMMIT and ROLLBACK, respectively. A
           ROLLBACK will also be issued if AutoCommit mode is off and the
           database handles DESTROY method is called. Again, this is following
           the DBI specifications.

       Given the above, you should note the following:

       o   You should never change the server variable autocommit manually,
           unless you are ignoring DBI's transaction support.

       o   Switching AutoCommit mode from on to off or vice versa may fail.
           You should always check for errors, when changing AutoCommit mode.
           The suggested way of doing so is using the DBI flag RaiseError.  If
           you don't like RaiseError, you have to use code like the following:

             $dbh->{'AutoCommit'} = 0;
             if ($dbh->{'AutoCommit'}) {
               # An error occurred!

       o   If you detect an error while changing the AutoCommit mode, you
           should no longer use the database handle. In other words, you
           should disconnect and reconnect again, because the transaction mode
           is unpredictable. Alternatively you may verify the transaction mode
           by checking the value of the server variable autocommit.  However,
           such behaviour isn't portable.

       o   DBD::mysql has a "reconnect" feature that handles the so-called
           MySQL "morning bug": If the server has disconnected, most probably
           due to a timeout, then by default the driver will reconnect and
           attempt to execute the same SQL statement again. However, this
           behaviour is disabled when AutoCommit is off: Otherwise the
           transaction state would be completely unpredictable after a

       o   The "reconnect" feature of DBD::mysql can be toggled by using the
           mysql_auto_reconnect attribute. This behaviour should be turned off
           in code that uses LOCK TABLE because if the database server time
           out and DBD::mysql reconnect, table locks will be lost without any
           indication of such loss.

       As of version 3.0002_5, DBD::mysql supports multiple result sets
       (Thanks to Guy Harrison!). This is the first release of this
       functionality, so there may be issues. Please report bugs if you run
       into them!

       The basic usage of multiple result sets is

           while (@row= $sth->fetchrow_array())
             do stuff;
         } while ($sth->more_results)

       An example would be:

         $dbh->do("drop procedure if exists someproc") or print $DBI::errstr;

         $dbh->do("create procedure someproc() deterministic
          declare a,b,c,d int;
          set a=1;
          set b=2;
          set c=3;
          set d=4;
          select a, b, c, d;
          select d, c, b, a;
          select b, a, c, d;
          select c, b, d, a;
         end") or print $DBI::errstr;

         $sth=$dbh->prepare('call someproc()') ||
         die $DBI::err.": ".$DBI::errstr;

         $sth->execute || die DBI::err.": ".$DBI::errstr; $rowset=0;
         do {
           print "\nRowset ".++$i."\n---------------------------------------\n\n";
           foreach $colno (0..$sth->{NUM_OF_FIELDS}-1) {
             print $sth->{NAME}->[$colno]."\t";
           print "\n";
           while (@row= $sth->fetchrow_array())  {
             foreach $field (0..$#row) {
               print $row[$field]."\t";
             print "\n";
         } until (!$sth->more_results)

       For more examples, please see the eg/ directory. This is where helpful
       DBD::mysql code snippets will be added in the future.

   Issues with Multiple result sets
       So far, the main issue is if your result sets are "jagged", meaning,
       the number of columns of your results vary. Varying numbers of columns
       could result in your script crashing. This is something that will be
       fixed soon.

       The multithreading capabilities of DBD::mysql depend completely on the
       underlying C libraries: The modules are working with handle data only,
       no global variables are accessed or (to the best of my knowledge)
       thread unsafe functions are called. Thus DBD::mysql is believed to be
       completely thread safe, if the C libraries are thread safe and you
       don't share handles among threads.

       The obvious question is: Are the C libraries thread safe?  In the case
       of MySQL the answer is "mostly" and, in theory, you should be able to
       get a "yes", if the C library is compiled for being thread safe (By
       default it isn't.) by passing the option -with-thread-safe-client to
       configure. See the section on How to make a threadsafe client in the

       You can make a single asynchronous query per MySQL connection; this
       allows you to submit a long-running query to the server and have an
       event loop inform you when it's ready.  An asynchronous query is
       started by either setting the 'async' attribute to a true value in the
       "do" in DBI method, or in the "prepare" in DBI method.  Statements
       created with 'async' set to true in prepare always run their queries
       asynchronously when "execute" in DBI is called.  The driver also offers
       three additional methods: "mysql_async_result", "mysql_async_ready",
       and "mysql_fd".  "mysql_async_result" returns what do or execute would
       have; that is, the number of rows affected.  "mysql_async_ready"
       returns true if "mysql_async_result" will not block, and zero
       otherwise.  They both return "undef" if that handle is not currently
       running an asynchronous query.  "mysql_fd" returns the file descriptor
       number for the MySQL connection; you can use this in an event loop.

       Here's an example of how to use the asynchronous query interface:

         use feature 'say';
         $dbh->do('SELECT SLEEP(10)', { async => 1 });
         until($dbh->mysql_async_ready) {
           say 'not ready yet!';
           sleep 1;
         my $rows = $dbh->mysql_async_result;

       Windows users may skip this section and pass over to WIN32 INSTALLATION
       below. Others, go on reading.

   Environment Variables
       For ease of use, you can now set environment variables for DBD::mysql
       installation. You can set any or all of the options, and export them by
       putting them in your .bashrc or the like:

           export DBD_MYSQL_CFLAGS=-I/usr/local/mysql/include/mysql
           export DBD_MYSQL_LIBS="-L/usr/local/mysql/lib/mysql -lmysqlclient"
           export DBD_MYSQL_EMBEDDED=
           export DBD_MYSQL_CONFIG=mysql_config
           export DBD_MYSQL_NOCATCHSTDERR=0
           export DBD_MYSQL_NOFOUNDROWS=0
           export DBD_MYSQL_SSL=
           export DBD_MYSQL_TESTDB=test
           export DBD_MYSQL_TESTHOST=localhost
           export DBD_MYSQL_TESTPASSWORD=s3kr1+
           export DBD_MYSQL_TESTPORT=3306
           export DBD_MYSQL_TESTUSER=me

       The most useful may be the host, database, port, socket, user, and

       Installation will first look to your mysql_config, and then your
       environment variables, and then it will guess with intelligent

   Installing with CPAN
       First of all, you do not need an installed MySQL server for installing
       DBD::mysql. However, you need at least the client libraries and
       possibly the header files, if you are compiling DBD::mysql from source.
       In the case of MySQL you can create a client-only version by using the
       configure option --without-server.  If you are using precompiled
       binaries, then it may be possible to use just selected RPM's like
       MySQL-client and MySQL-devel or something similar, depending on the

       I recommend trying automatic installation via the CPAN module. Try


       If you are using the CPAN module for the first time, it will prompt you
       a lot of questions. If you finally receive the CPAN prompt, enter

         install DBD::mysql

   Manual Installation
       If this fails (which may be the case for a number of reasons, for
       example because you are behind a firewall or don't have network
       access), you need to do a manual installation. First of all you need to
       fetch the modules from CPAN


       The following modules are required


       Then enter the following commands (note - versions are just examples):

         gzip -cd DBI-(version).tar.gz | tar xf -
         cd DBI-(version)
         perl Makefile.PL
         make test
         make install

         cd ..
         gzip -cd DBD-mysql-(version)-tar.gz | tar xf -
         cd DBD-mysql-(version)
         perl Makefile.PL
         make test
         make install

       During "perl Makefile.PL" you will be prompted some questions.  Other
       questions are the directories with header files and libraries.  For
       example, of your file mysql.h is in /usr/include/mysql/mysql.h, then
       enter the header directory /usr, likewise for
       /usr/lib/mysql/libmysqlclient.a or /usr/lib/

       The MariaDB native client is another option for connecting to a MySQL
       database licensed LGPL 2.1. To build DBD::mysql against this client,
       you will first need to build the client. Generally, this is done with
       the following:

         cd path/to/src/mariadb-native-client
         cmake -G "Unix Makefiles'
         sudo make install

       Once the client is built and installed, you can build DBD::mysql
       against it:

         perl Makefile.PL --testuser=xxx --testpassword=xxx --testsocket=/path/to//mysqld.sock --mysql_config=/usr/local/bin/mariadb_config
         make test
         make install

       If you are using ActivePerl, you may use ppm to install DBD-mysql.

         ppm install DBI
         ppm install DBD::mysql

       If you need an HTTP proxy, you might need to set the environment
       variable http_proxy, for example like this:

         set http_proxy=

       I recommend using the win32clients package for installing DBD::mysql
       under Win32, available for download on The following steps
       have been required for me:

       -   Extract sources into C:\. This will create a directory C:\mysql
           with subdirectories include and lib.

           IMPORTANT: Make sure this subdirectory is not shared by other TCX
           files! In particular do *not* store the MySQL server in the same
           directory. If the server is already installed in C:\mysql, choose a
           location like C:\tmp, extract the win32clients there.  Note that
           you can remove this directory entirely once you have installed

       -   Extract the DBD::mysql sources into another directory, for example

       -   Open a CMD.exe shell and change directory to C:\src\siteperl.

       -   The next step is only required if you repeat building the modules:
           Make sure that you have a clean build tree by running

             nmake realclean

           If you don't have VC++, replace nmake with your flavor of make. If
           error messages are reported in this step, you may safely ignore

       -   Run

             perl Makefile.PL

           which will prompt you for some settings. The really important ones

             Which DBMS do you want to use?

           enter a 1 here (MySQL only), and

             Where is your mysql installed? Please tell me the directory that
             contains the subdir include.

           where you have to enter the win32clients directory, for example
           C:\mysql or C:\tmp\mysql.

       -   Continued in the usual way:

             nmake install

       Originally, there was a non-DBI driver, Mysql, which was much like PHP
       drivers such as mysql and mysqli. The Mysql module was originally
       written by Andreas Koenig <> who still, to this day,
       contributes patches to DBD::mysql. An emulated version of Mysql was
       provided to DBD::mysql from Jochen Wiedmann, but eventually deprecated
       as it was another bundle of code to maintain.

       The first incarnation of DBD::mysql was developed by Alligator
       Descartes, who was also aided and abetted by Gary Shea, Andreas Koenig
       and Tim Bunce.

       The current incarnation of DBD::mysql was written by Jochen Wiedmann,
       then numerous changes and bug-fixes were added by Rudy Lippan. Next,
       prepared statement support was added by Patrick Galbraith and Alexy
       Stroganov (who also solely added embedded server support).

       For the past nine years DBD::mysql has been maintained by Patrick
       Galbraith (, and recently with the great help of Michiel
       Beijen (,  along with the entire community of
       Perl developers who keep sending patches to help continue improving

       Anyone who desires to contribute to this project is encouraged to do
       so.  Currently, the source code for this project can be found at


       Either fork this repository and produce a branch with your changeset
       that the maintainer can merge to his tree, or create a diff with git.
       The maintainer is more than glad to take contributions from the
       community as many features and fixes from DBD::mysql have come from the

       This module is

       o   Large Portions Copyright (c) 2004-2013 Patrick Galbraith

       o   Large Portions Copyright (c) 2004-2006 Alexey Stroganov

       o   Large Portions Copyright (c) 2003-2005 Rudolf Lippan

       o   Large Portions Copyright (c) 1997-2003 Jochen Wiedmann, with code

       o   Copyright (c)1994-1997 their original authors

       This module is released under the same license as Perl itself. See
       <> for details.

       This module is maintained and supported on a mailing list, dbi-users.

       To subscribe to this list, send an email to

       Mailing list archives are at


       Additional information on the DBI project can be found on the World
       Wide Web at the following URL:


       where documentation, pointers to the mailing lists and mailing list
       archives and pointers to the most current versions of the modules can
       be used.

       Information on the DBI interface itself can be gained by typing:

           perldoc DBI

       Information on DBD::mysql specifically can be gained by typing:

           perldoc DBD::mysql

       (this will display the document you're currently reading)

       Please report bugs, including all the information needed such as
       DBD::mysql version, MySQL version, OS type/version, etc to this link:


       Note: until recently, MySQL/Sun/Oracle responded to bugs and assisted
       in fixing bugs which many thanks should be given for their help!  This
       driver is outside the realm of the numerous components they support,
       and the maintainer and community solely support DBD::mysql

perl v5.20.2                      2014-07-30                   DBD::mysql(3pm)

Czas wygenerowania: 0.00019 sek.

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